বৃহস্পতিবার, ৫ জানুয়ারী, ২০১২

Bangladesh Public Service Commission: A Diagnostic Study

1
Draft
Bangladesh Public Service Commission:
A Diagnostic Study
Transparency International Bangladesh
March 2007
2
Bangladesh Public Service Commission:
A Diagnostic Study
Research Advisers
Professor Muzaffer Ahmad
Chairman
Board of Trustees, Transparency International Bangladesh
Mr. M. Hafizuddin Khan
Treasurer
Board of Trustees, Transparency International Bangladesh
Dr. Iftekharuzzaman
Executive Director
Transparency International Bangladesh
Report Editor
Shahzada M Akram, Senior Research Officer
Research Conducted by
Md. Rezaul Karim, Research Officer
Research Associate
Rumana Sharmin, Research Assistant
Contact:
Transparency International Bangladesh
Progress Tower (3rd – 6th Floors)
House # 1, Road # 23, Gulshan-1
Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
Tel: 01713065658, 880 2 9884811, 880 2 8826036
Fax: 880 2 9884811/Ext. 129
E-mail: rezaul@ti-bangladesh.org
Website: http://www.ti-bangladesh.org
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Preface
The Bangladesh Pubic Service Commission (PSC) is one of the most important pillars of
the National Integrity System having a key role in promoting excellence and integrity in
the public service and administration of the country. PSC’s independence, political
neutrality, transparency, accountability, integrity and effectiveness are fundamental
prerequisites for carrying out its functions which include holding of competitive
examinations for recruitment to the public service, recommend recruitments,
promotions, discipline, employee appeal and other related matters. Lack of credibility
and integrity of this vital Constitutional body not only leads to undermining of meritbased
appointment in the public service, but is bound to have significant negative impact
on the prospect of efficient, professional, transparent and accountable governance.
Alleged partisan influence through politically biased appointment of Chairmen and
Members of the Commission, recruitment of ruling party activists and supporters,
leakage of question papers for examinations, and various other forms of irregularities
and corruption have led to erosion of trust upon this Constitutional body. The depth and
breadth of corruption and governance failure in the country are widely perceived to be
attributable to a significant extent to the failure of the PSC to ensure a credible process
of appointments to the public service. However no comprehensive study has yet been
done to diagnose the nature and extent of irregularities, corruption, governance
problems and institutional weaknesses of PSC. The main objective of this study is to
bridge this gap, and to recommend measures that may contribute to combating
irregularities and corruption in the PSC. TIB has undertaken this diagnostic study in
recognition of the critical importance of this vital institution, and growing erosion of its
credibility.
The study was conducted by Md. Rezaul Karim, Research Officer of TIB, with the
research support of Rumana Sharmin, Research Assistant. Other members of TIB’s
Research Division also provided valuable support including feedback and suggestions at
different stages.
Professor Muzaffer Ahmad, Chairman, Board of Trustees of TIB guided and supervised
the study, for which we remain grateful. The report has been enriched by suggestions of
Mr. M. Hafizuddin Khan, former Adviser to the Caretaker Government and currently
Treasurer of TIB.
We gratefully acknowledge contributions of a number of key informants and
distinguished individuals who helped the study at various stages by sharing valuable
information, knowledge and expert opinion about the subject. For valuable comments
and suggestions on an earlier draft of the report we are grateful to Dr. M. Akbar Ali
Khan, former Cabinet Secretary & Adviser to the Caretaker Government; Dr. Sadat
Hussain, former Cabinet Secretary; Dr. S.M. Al-Hussainy and Professor Md. Mostafa
Chowdhury, former Chairmen of PSC; Professor Hamida Banu and Professor Khondoker
Bazlul Hoq, former Members of the Commission; Dr. A.M.M. Shawkat Ali, Former
Secretary; Professor Syed Giasuddin Ahmed of the Department of Public Administration,
University of Dhaka; and Professor Dr. A.Q.M. Mahboob of the Department of Geography
and Environmental Science, University of Dhaka. We also appreciate that a set of
comments on an earlier draft was sent to us from the Commission, which was given due
importance in revising the earlier version and annexed with this report.
We hope that the study will benefit the concerned authorities and stakeholders,
especially the PSC, and those who will go through the recruitment process by it in the
future. TIB would also welcome any constructive critique and suggestion from anyone
which would facilitate further enrichment of the study.
Iftekharuzzaman
Executive Director
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Table of Contents
Page No.
Preface iii
Abbreviations vii
Executive Summary viii
Chapter 1
Introduction 1
Context
1
Rationale 4
Objectives 4
Theoretical Framework 4
Methodology 5
Scope of Research 6
Limitations of the Study 6
Structure of the Report 7
Chapter 2
Bangladesh Public Service Commission:
Constitutional and Legal Framework 8
Scope and Functions of PSC 10
Chapter 3
Institutional Structure 14
Organogram of the PSC 14
Procedure of Work of the Commission 14
Professional Background of PSC Chairman and Members 14
PSC Secretariat 15
Financial Issues 17
Chapter 4
BCS Examinations: Irregularities and Corruption 19
PSC’s Recruitment Activities (1972 – 2007) 19
Procedure of Selection and Appointment of BCS Cadres 21
Irregularities in BCS Examinations 25
Credibility of PSC: From Service Recipients’ Point of View 34
Chapter 5
Diagnosis of the Limitations of the PSC 35
Constitutional and Legal Limitations 35
Dependence on the Government 38
Lack of Accountability Measures 39
Institutional Limitations 39
Irregularities in BCS Examinations 41
Chapter 6
Conclusion and Recommendations 43
Recommendations 43
Bibliography 46
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List of Annexes
1. PSC in the Constitution of Bangladesh.
2. PSC: Genesis and Development at a Glance.
3. Warrant of Precedence.
4. Laws, Rules and Procedures Concerning the Formation and Functions of PSC.
5A Candidates recruited through BCS and BCS Equivalent Exams.
5. Gazette Notifications on New Appointment of BCS Cadre (finally appointed by
Ministry of Establishment).
6. Recruitment by interview (1972-2005).
7. No. of Persons Recommended by BPSC for Promotional Recruitments.
8. Disposal of Disciplinary Cases by BPSC (1972-2005)
9. The Bangladesh Public Service Commission: Organizational Structure.
10. Background of PSC Chairmen (prior to join PSC) since 1947.
11. Background of PSC Members (prior to join PSC) since 1947.
12. An overview of Human Resource at PSC.
13A Total Time Spent in BCS & Equivalent Exams (1971-2006).
13B List of BCS Cadres.
14. BCS candidates dropped by Ministry of Establishment.
15. An overview of BCS Examinees notified in the Gazettes (By sex and religion).
16A Representation on religious and ethnic minority in BCS Professional Cadre.
16B Representation of Women in General & Professional Cadres of BCS Exams.
17. Types of questions asked in the BCS viva board.
18. Weeding and Destruction of Records (‡iKW© evQvB I webóKiY).
19. On the Issues Service Recipients of the PSC Want to Know About.
20. Proposed Integrity Statement on the Bangladesh Public Service Commission.
21. Note of Dissent (‡bvU Ae wW‡m›U).
22. Informants’ Background at a glance.
23. Income, Expenditure & Net Budget Received from Government Treasury.
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Abbreviations
ACC Anti- Corruption Commission
APS Australian Public Service
ASRC Administrative and Services Reorganization Committee
BAC Bureau of Anti-Corruption
BCS Bangladesh Civil Service
BGP Bangladesh Government Press
BPSC Bangladesh Public Service Commission
CARC Civil Administration Restoration Committee
CEC Chairman of the Exam Committee
COE Council of Europe
CPSC Central Public Service Commission
CSRC Civil Administration Restoration Committee
EPPSC East Pakistan Public Service Commission
FIs Field Investigators
FPSC Federal Public Service Commission
HCAA Hierarchical Central Administrative Agency
IACC Independent Anti-Corruption Commission
ICS Indian Civil Service
IGP Inspector General of Police
ILA Implementing Lead Authority
JCD Jatiyatabadi Chhatra Dal
JS Jatiya Sangsad (or National Parliament)
KII Key Informant Interview
KIs Key Informants
LC Lee Commission
LPR Leave Preparatory to Retirement
ME Ministry of Establishment
MI Ministry of Information
MLCOS Martial Law Committee on Organizations and Orders
MLJPA Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs
NIS National Integrity System
OAS Organization of American States
PARC Public Administration Reforms Commission
PPSC Pakistan Public Service Commission
PSC Public Service Commission
TIB Transparency International Bangladesh
UN United Nations
VC Vice Chancellor
WB World Bank
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Executive Summary
The Public Service Commission (PSC), as a key pillar of the National Integrity System,
has a critical role in establishing and promoting transparent and accountable governance
in the country. The Constitution of Bangladesh under Articles 137-141 has assigned the
Commission the role of selecting the most competent persons for the public service of
the republic through competitive examinations and tests in a fair and transparent
manner. The PSC is also mandated to advise the President in framing recruitment rules;
promotion, transfer and disciplinary matters; employees’ appeals and memorials; and
other matters related to the public service. The degree to which the country will have a
professional, honest, neutral and fair public service rests on the integrity, effectiveness
and credibility of the PSC.
From the very beginning of the PSC’s operations, its credibility has been subject of
debate, reaching its nadir recently. Appointment of Chairman and Members in PSC on
political consideration, recruitment of ruling party activists and supporters, leakage of
BCS question papers, and selection by bribery are among the most frequently raised
allegations about the PSC which have contributed to a massive erosion of trust and
credibility of this Constitutional body. However, no major initiative has yet been taken to
diagnose the root causes, nature, and extent of these irregularities, and recommend
appropriate measures. This study is an attempt to bridge this gap.
Information and data obtained from both primary and secondary sources form the basis
of this study, which have been supplemented by a series of discussion with key
informants and review of published documents (e.g., PSC related Constitutional
mandates, rules and regulations, government orders, gazettes, inquiry reports, annual
reports and other publicly available documents). The primary data were collected
through a survey of 434 BCS examinees (both successful and unsuccessful) for which a
semi-structured questionnaire was used. Failure of the PSC authority to extend desired
cooperation was the main contributing factor for limitations of this study.
An Overview of the PSC
Constitutional Mandate: Article 137-141 of the Constitution of Bangladesh.
Legal Mandates: Presidential Order No. 34 (on May 9, 1972), PSC Ordinance No. LVII of 1977,
BCS Recruitment Rules of 1981, PSC Officers & Employees Recruitment Rules, 1990.
�� Provision of Chairman : 1
�� Total No. Chairman till date (1972-2006) : 10
�� Provision of Members : 6-15
�� Total No. of Members (1972-2006) : 79
�� Human Resource in the PSC Secretariat : 344 (first class 62; 2nd class 52; 3rd class 134; 4th
class 96)
�� BCS equivalent exams held during 1972-1981 : 7
�� Recommended through BCS equivalent exams : 1,982
�� BCS exams held during 1982-2006 : 27
�� Recommended for appointment through BCS examinations : 39,431
�� Recommended for appointment through interview only : 18,011 (1972 – 2005).
�� Recommended for appointment through promotion : 22,911 (1972 – 2005).
�� Recommended for transfers and ad hoc positions : 24,230 (1973-2000).
�� Average time spent (for General BCS Exam: 24.75 months; Special BCS Exam.: 14 months).
�� General Cadre gazetted : 6,256 (21.11% in 19 BCS Exams).
�� Professional Cadre gazetted: 23,373 (78.89% in 19 BCS Exams).
�� Female appointments in 19 gazettes of BCS Exams including 10% quota: 6,142 (15.39% in
general cadre and 22.15% in professional cadre in 19 BCS Exams).
�� Non-Muslim appointments in 19 gazettes of BCS Exams including 5% tribal quota: 3,163
(8.46% in BCS General Cadre and 11.27% in professional cadre).
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Structural limitations
1. Although the PSC is an independent body, its Secretariat is practically under the
control of the government. The internal recruitments, disciplinary and
administrative issues of the PSC are influenced by the government.
2. Qualification, eligibility criteria and appointment procedure for appointment of
Chairman and Members are not clearly defined, nor transparent.
3. Barring few exceptions Chairmen and Members have been appointed on partisan
political consideration since 1972, making the Commission an outfit serving
partisan political interests, and a recruitment agency of candidates aligned to the
ruling party(ies).
4. Lower rank of Chairman/Members compared to other Constitutional bodies has
created scope of interference in PSC from the bureaucracy.
5. There is no specific accountability mechanism especially for the Chairman and
Members.
6. There is lack of sufficient deterrence including disciplinary actions against the
corrupt, who include personnel at all levels.
7. PSC Members were found to be involved in various income-earning as well as
partisan political activities.
Operational limitations
1. It has no programme for capacity development of staff. The Commission lacks
technical skill; most of the huge task of recruitment related activities are done
manually. It does not have a website.
2. It lacks manpower while 15% sanctioned posts are vacant in the Secretariat.
3. Officers and employees of PSC are recruited usually on political consideration and
exchange of bribes.
4. Pro-ruling party staff are usually transferred to the important Units of PSC (such
as Confidential and Recruitment Units).
5. A network of corrupt officials has developed in the PSC Secretariat earning
unauthorised income by involving themselves in leakage of questions, contracting
with the job seekers, helping ruling party supporters for getting job, etc. The
network is too strong for any internal disciplinary action.
Irregularities in Examination & Related Issues
1. Recruitment System under the BCS Examination Process
1. The examination system is archaic and outdated lacking the scope of proper
assessment of the competency of candidates.
2. Because of lack of transparent assessment criteria for examinations, there is
scope of irregularities and corruption in the recruitment process.
3. There have been blatant examples of partisan recruitments in important cadres
like administration and police.
2. Irregularities in BCS examination
1. Contractual selection based on transaction of bribery is rampant.
a. Contract in getting attractive cadres for those who made it to the merit list
i. Administration/Police Cadre : Tk. 5-7 lac
ii. Customs/Tax : Tk. 8-10 lac
iii. Professional Cadre : Tk. 2-3 lac
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b. Contract for selecting candidates who failed to make it to the merit list
i. Administration/Police Cadre : Tk. 8-10 lac
ii. Customs/Tax : Tk. 10-12 lac
iii. Professional Cadre : Tk. 3-5 lac
2. The Leakage of question paper has been happening on regular basis since the
24th BCS examination.
3. Seat allocation is also done with bribe.
4. Exam scripts are submitted without appearing at the exam hall. Exam scripts are
changed on payment basis.
5. Merit list and results are changed. Successful candidates are dropped from merit
list by adding new candidates on payment of bribe and on political consideration.
6. High marks are given arbitrarily in Viva Voce to the candidates under contract or
to political cadres and activists.
7. Candidates are asked to answer controversial questions like who is the declarer of
independence of Bangladesh.
8. Pressures to recruit persons belonging to lists sent from the high command of the
ruling party.
9. Candidates are called by PSC Members at the commission for negotiation.
10. Selection allowed with fake certificate since 20th BCS examination.
11.Documents of BCS examination are destroyed without maintaining proper
procedures (e.g., Secretariat Regulations 1974).
12.Candidates are not provided with mark-sheets.
13. PSC never publishes data on the specific quota of recommended candidates.
3. Quota system
1. The quota system is implemented without transparency.
2. Outcome of the quota policy has never been made public by PSC or ME. Official
documents, gazette notifications do not have data regarding quota of the BCS
cadres.
3. Discrimination against religious minorities has happened in the BCS examinations.
4. Reporting for accountability
1. The annual reports of PSC are little more than a formality. Information are
repeated over the years with hardly any in-depth analysis, nor are there any data
to enable accountability and transparency.
2. There is no provision for discussion on Annual Report of the PSC in the National
Parliament.
3. Official Secrets Act is used as a convenient tool to deny information, which works
as a safeguard for corrupt officials.
5. Impact of irregularities in PSC
1. Politicisation of public service.
2. Merit and skill are no longer the basis of appointment to public service.
3. Public servants start their service life with corruption and have the logic and
motivation to get involved in the same throughout.
4. Deterioration in the standard and quality of human resources in public service
resulting in mediocrity or even lower level of efficiency.
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Recommendations
The following recommendations have been made with regard to ensuring good
governance within the PSC.
1. Re-Constitution of the Commission and Punishment of the Corrupt
1. The PSC should be reconstituted immediately composed of a Chairperson and
Members with impeccable professional excellence and undisputed integrity,
efficiency and credibility.
2. A Special Committee should be formed to accomplish the above and recommend
measures for reforming the Commission with special emphasis on neutrality,
independence and effectiveness of the Commission.
3. The Anti-corruption Commission should be called upon to investigate into all sorts
of irregularities and corruptions held in PSC at all levels including former and
present Chairman, Members, officers and employees and their dependents.
4. The Chairperson, Members and staff of Commission must reveal their income,
assets and liabilities and those of their immediate family members and regularly
update the same.
5. Investigations should include all recruitments especially the 20-27th BCS exams
conducted by PSC during the last 15 years.
2. Independence and Accountability of the PSC
1. The PSC must be granted full independence in terms of administrative and financial
control befitting the challenge facing it.
2. The Commission must have internal self-regulatory and transparency mechanism in
place, while it must be externally reportable to the Parliament through Standing
Committee on Public Service.
3. Qualification and Eligibility Criteria for Chairman and Members
The Chairman and Members of the Commission must be:
1. Persons of high integrity, strong moral courage, personality and commitment.
2. Must have knowledge and experiences on public administration.
3. Prepared to disassociate from any other position of financial benefit.
4. Must have sound health and proven non-communal attitude.
4. Selection of Chairman and Members
The present practice under which the Chief Executive is the ultimate appointing
authority of the Chairman and Members of the Commission must be replaced by a
creating a Search Committee consisting of the Chief Executive, Chief Justice, Leader
of the Opposition in the Parliament, Eminent retired Civil Servant of impeccable
record and credibility, non-partisan and professionally acclaimed educationist and
civil society member and a media person with similar credibility. Selection process
may be as followers:
o Step I: Make a list of the competent persons for appointing as member and
chairman of any constitutional body.
o Step II: Send the list to the anti-corruption commission to assess their
credibility, service records and assets.
o Step III: Publish the names of the proposed persons along with their qualification
and assets in electronic and print media.
o Step IV: Make a short list of the proposed persons and send it to the Parliament
for general discussion. The parliament will send the list to the Search Committee.
o Step V: The Search Committee will finalise the panel of the Chairman and
Members and send it to the President for approval.
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5. Rank of Chairman/Members
The status and rank of the Chairmen of the PSC should be made equivalent to a
Minister, and members should be equivalent to the Judges of the Appellate Division of
the Supreme Court.
6. Reforms in Examination and Recruitment System
1. An Examination and Recruitment Reform Committee should be formed to
modernise the examination and recruitment system meeting the challenges of the
service for which recruitments are made, with particular emphasis on the meritbased
recruitment, complete abolition of partisan political or any other influence in
the recruitment, and specific needs of the various cadres.
2. The existing generalised exam system should be abolished and cadre-specific
examination should be introduced to ensure efficiency and professionalism in
service.
3. The new examination system must ensure evaluation by relevant, honest and
skilled examiners.
4. A set of transparent guidelines must be prepared and publicly available consisting
of the examination rules and recruitment process.
5. The Commission should have a Complain Box to receive complaints and
suggestions from the service receivers. All complains should be duly addressed and
results made public.
7. Quota System
1. The existing quota system for freedom fighters and district are no longer
considered logical and should be abolished.
2. At least 75% of places should be on purely merit basis, while the remaining may
be distributed for affirmative action on the basis of gender, ethnic and religious
identity.
8. Access to Information
1. The mark sheet of the successful candidates should be given to the examinees on
compulsory basis immediately after the result is published;
2. The result sheet of all examinees (both successful and unsuccessful) must be
published on the website.
3. Existing restrictions against challenging the result of examinations should be
immediately abolished.
9. Other Management Issues
1. A website for PSC should be established with all information.
2. Computerised data base and MIS should be established with all information of
public interest publicly available through various means including website.
3. A Human Resource Unit should be established at PSC, with special emphasis on
training and capacity building of the staff.
4. All personnel of the staff should be recruited based on relevant academic
background, merit and skills.
5. Should recruit totally new officers and employees for the commission purely based
on relevant academic background, merit and necessary skills. The reconstruction
Committee on PSC will determine the required number of the staff for PSC through
feasibility study.
6. The Secretary of the PSC should be equivalent to the Secretary of the government.
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10. PSC’s Integrity Statement and Citizen’s Committee
�� Initiative should be taken to introduce Integrity Statement/Code of Ethics for the
PSC.
�� A Committee of Concerned Citizens composed of persons with proven integrity,
efficiency and commitment may be constituted to keep watch on the activities and
performance of the PSC and to suggest measure to make the PSC efficient and
honest.
11. Anti-corruption Hotline on Public Service Commission
�� A hotline (phone number or mail box) may be introduced in the office of the Anticorruption
Commission (ACC) of Bangladesh to receive all sorts of complaints
related to irregularities and corruption of the PSC. The Special Reform Committee on
the PSC and ACC may jointly explore the specific structure, and working procedure
of this hotline.
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Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 The Context
The Public Service Commission (PSC) is an important pillar of the national integrity
system1 (NIS). It has a very substantial role in promoting excellence in the public
administration by selecting the most competent persons for the public services of the
republic. The core idea of a public service is based on the philosophy of recruitment of
civil/public servants on the basis of merit.2
The first PSC in this sub-continent was established in British India on 1 October 1926 at
central level and the Bengal PSC at provincial level on 1 April 1937 under the
Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1937 respectively.3 These PSCs carried out their
functions as prescribed in the legal mandates with reputation, integrity and proficiency.
This tradition continued even by the military rulers of Pakistan after independence in
1947. Immediately after the emergence of Bangladesh, a total of two PSCs were
established by merging the entire set-up of East Pakistan PSC and the Regional Office of
Central PSC on 9 May 1972 in Dhaka.4
However, from the very beginning of their activities, the PSCs faced criticism. The
selection of 1st class gazetted officers held in 1972 (e.g., Special Superior Service
Examination for the Freedom Fighters, 1972 and for non-freedom fighters, 1973)
conducted by the two PSCs were based on only interview. These two exams are criticised
for recommending jobs to partisan candidates on political patronage. Over the last one
and half decades a number of allegations were raised against the PSC. These include the
appointment of Chairman and Members of the Commission on partisan consideration,
selection of protagonists of the ruling party through BCS examinations, influence of the
ruling party over the ongoing activities of the PSC, leakage of question papers before the
examinations are held and so on. The PSC is now considered, to a great extent, as the
gateway of the ruling party activists to enter into the civil service. The credibility of this
constitutional body does not remain above controversy.
1.1.1 Concept and Nature of PSC: Emergence of the Public Service
The initiative of merit-based recruitment of civil servants in place of political patronage
was first introduced in the Ancient Imperial China (i.e., imperial examination) during the
Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) and was abolished by the Ch'ing dowager empress
(Qing Dynasty) in 1905 under pressure from leading Chinese intellectuals.5 The Chinese
system was known to Europe in the mid-18th century, and it is believed to have
influenced the creation of civil services in Europe. The establishment of civil service
commission in England resulted from numerous influences. In the middle of the 19th
century, the East India Company, for the first time, requested the King of England to
establish an independent commission for selecting, based purely on merit, competent
persons. Accordingly, the Northcote-Trevelyan Committee, led by Sir Stafford Northcote
1 Transparency International, ‘Corruption and Aid Effectiveness’, Working paper No. 4-2006,
September 20, 2006, p.14-15. The concept of the National Integrity System (NIS) has been
developed and promoted by TI as part of its approach in preventing corruption. The NIS consists of
the key institutions, laws and practices that contribute to integrity, transparency and accountability
in a society. The NIS approach provides a framework with which both the extent and causes of
corruption in a given national context, as well as the adequacy and effectiveness of national anticorruption
efforts can be analysed.
2 <www.u-s-history.com/pages/h965.html/> accessed on 15 November 2006.
3 Syed Giasuddin Ahmed, Bangladesh Public Service Commission, Dhaka University Press, Dhaka,
1990, p 28.
4 PSC Annual Report, 2005, p 1.
5 The Columbia Electronic Encyclopaedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2006, Columbia University Press.
14
and Sir Charles–Trevelyan, was formed. Thus the first ever Public Service Commission
was constituted in England on 21 May 1855. The term was first used in designating the
administration of British India. Its first application was found in 1854 in England.6
Figure 1: Types of Public Service Commissions and Central Public
Personnel Agency7
6 The Columbia Electronic Encyclopaedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003, Columbia University
Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press.
7 Diagram prepared based on Ahmed (1990, 1986, 1984); UN (1966).
HCAA with
Broad Powers
- includes central
administrative
agencies (e.g.,
Ministry of
Establishment in
Bangladesh) which
holds much control
over advisory
commissions.
HCAA with
Restricted Powers
- General supervision and
personnel research
related to central
personnel management
of a country (e.g.,
directorates of French
Model)
- Also found in unitary
system;
Pluralistic System
A public service management with
existence of at least two organs at the
central level
Hierarchical Central Administrative
Agencies (HCAA)
Regulates/controls/supervises the public
service management issues and enjoy
full autonomous run by the government
Central Public Personnel Agency/Authority of a Country
Deals with personnel functions having government-wide implications
Unitary System
A public service management
with existence of one organ at
the central level
A Directorate
General
A monochromic
and hierarchical
civil service
management
system with
technical
autonomy only
(e.g., French
Speaking African
countries & Iran)
A Board or
Commission
It’s a single organ,
separated from the
administrative hierarchy,
has decision making
powers in civil service
management issues
(e.g., The
Commonwealth Pubic
Service Board in
Australia)
Public Service
Ministry or
Department
A ministry
comprising more
than one
department
(Example: In
some African
countries)
Executive Commissions with
restricted powers
Have limited power of decisionmaking
in matters of recruitment,
promotion, transfer and discipline
of the public service (e.g., Kenya,
Malawi, Sierra Leone etc.)
Executive Commissions
with Broad Powers
A central organ for
management of the civil
service with wide decision
–making powers (e.g., The
Philippines PSC)
Advisory Commissions
Can give advice on public
service management
issues but has no decision
making power (e.g., PSCs
in Bangladesh, India, and
Pakistan)
Collegiate PSCs
An organ for management of
public service which is not fully
autonomous
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According to Ahmed (1990:3-20), the main objective behind constituting a PSC is to
ensure that all decisions relating to recruitment, promotion, discipline, employee appeal
and other important service matters are made strictly on merit and not on patronage or
other grounds. The PSC has two basic purposes: first, elimination of patronage in the
civil service; and second, selection of the best persons available and their recruitment.
Based on ‘the philosophy of merit based recruitment system’ which is also free from all
sorts of political patronage and nepotism, the PSC emerged at the mid and late 19th
century in Britain and USA respectively. In the USA, the Civil Service Commission was
established by Congress in 1871 and was abolished in 1878.8 After the assassination of
the US President Garfield by a disappointed job seeker in 1881, the movement for reestablishing
the ‘merit based recruitment system’ in place of the ‘spoil system’ began
once again. As a result, the Federal Civil Service Commission was re-established in 1883,
in USA under Pendleton Act of 1883 and continued until 1978.
The principles, structure, composition, power and functions, and status of PSC (British
India and United Pakistan) were made in accordance with the provisions mandated by
the Government of India Acts of 1919 & 1935.9 Later on, the Constitutions of India
(1950) and Pakistan (1959 & 1962) gave the legal mandates and autonomous status.
Further, PSCs were observed to act as advisory body in both periods. This was done to
ensure unbiased recruitment to Civil Services and maintain autonomous status of PSCs.
The PSC during Pakistan period was inherited from the Bengal PSC of British India (then
EPPSC), CPSC (United Pakistan). No substantial change has yet been made in its
structure, composition and functions of PSC since the establishment of the first PSC in
the Indian Sub continent in 1926 and in Bengal in 1937. The status of PSC still continues
as an advisory, as well as, a Constitutional body in dealing with the recruitment,
promotion and disciplinary matters of the 1st class government officers of the republic
since its inception.
According to the present structure, the Ministry of Establishment in Bangladesh is the
central public personnel management authority which regulates civil service of the
country, controls and supervises internal civil management and handles the problems of
general public service management (Ahmed, 1990). On the other hand, PSC has no
executive power in taking any decision for regulating civil service of the country and its
power is limited to give advice and recommendations on recruitment, promotion,
employee appeal, and disciplinary matters of public service in Bangladesh. It should be
mentioned here that PSC, like its predecessors in British India (i.e., Federal Public
Service Commission) and United Pakistan (i.e., Central Public Service Commission and
East Pakistan Public Service Commission), is a Constitutional body whose structure,
status, power and functions are firmly based on the Constitutional mandates of the
People’s Republic of Bangladesh.10
1.1.2 Review of Existing Literature on PSC
Keeping the objectives of the present study in mind, a review of the existing literature
was done. A number of studies has focused on the genesis, development, structure and
functions, and operational problems of PSC (Ahmed, 1986; Ahmed, 1990; Ali, 2002;
Zafarullah and Khan, 2005, Khan, 1998). Some of these studies specifically focused on
the genesis and development of PSC with cross country experiences, Constitutional and
legal mandates (Ahmed, 1990; Ali, 2002), government’s interference in PSC with
empirical evidence and profile of the Chairman and Members of the Commission from
8 When a political party comes to power, its leaders tend to place many of their faithful followers
into important public offices. The use of public offices as rewards for political party work is known
as the "Spoil System." www.u-s-history.com/pages/h965.html/accessed.
9 See Annex 2 for details on the genesis and development of BPSC at glance.
10Article 137-141, Part IX, The Constitution of The People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Chapter II –
Public Service Commissions (Modified up to May 31, 2000), p. 55-57, see Annex 1 for details on
BPSC in the Constitution of Bangladesh.
16
1947 to 1986 (Ahmed, 1990; Ali, 2002), critical review of the recruitment policy of the
PSC (Ali, 2002 and 2004; Sikder 2006).
However, although these studies offered various recommendations, they did not cover
governance related issues of the PSC, problems of the PSC’s operations, and root
causes, nature and extent of irregularities in the PSC. The existing literature on PSC so
far has not explored the weaknesses in the Constitutional and legal mandates and official
documents, and irregularities in PSC’s operations (within and outside) extensively.
Further, none of the above studies ascertained the perceptions of the service recipients
of the PSC on the irregularities and corruptions in the commission over the decades,
which have been widely covered in the daily newspapers over the years.
At this backdrop, an initiative was undertaken by Transparency International Bangladesh
(TIB) to explore the limitations and reasons behind the growing erosion of trust over the
PSC. This study mainly attempts to diagnose the limitations of the Bangladesh Public
Service Commission (PSC). In particular, it provides a comprehensive analysis of the
root causes, nature and extent of irregularities and corruptions, and then comes out with
a set of applicable recommendations.
1.2 Rationale
The rationales behind undertaking this study are as follows:
�� The PSC is one of the important pillars of the NIS, and it has a crucial role in
promoting excellence in future public administration of the country. This study is
aimed at meeting the commitment of TIB to conduct diagnostic studies on the NIS
institutions under the Making Waves Project.
�� Questions upon the transparency, accountability and credibility of the Commission
have been raised since 1972 leading towards erosion of trust among the people. To
what extent the allegations are true has not been investigated or analysed.
�� No comprehensive study has been carried out yet to diagnose the limitations of the
PSC.
1.3 Objectives
The broad objective of this study is to diagnose the limitations, irregularities and
corruptions in the PSC, and to come up with a set of policy recommendations.
The specific objectives of this study are to:
�� Critically review the Constitutional and Legal mandates of PSC.
�� Provide an overview of PSC’s scope and functions.
�� Find out the institutional limitations of PSC and their causes.
�� Find out the nature, extent and implications of irregularities in PSC with a special
focus on BCS examinations.
�� Collect service-receivers’ opinion/views on the areas of reforms in PSC.
�� Make specific recommendations for policy reforms in PSC.
1.4 Theoretical Framework of the Study
This report follows the three basic principles for an efficient civil service proposed by the
Northcote-Trevelyan Committee, led by Sir Stafford Northcote and Sir Charles–Trevelyan
in 1854. First, the commission should be detached from the political government.
Second, the recruitment to service should be by open competition based on ideals of a
17
non-partisan career civil service. Third, promotion in service should be on the basis of
merit.11
The terms ‘public service’ and ‘civil service’ are used synonymously in this report to
denote the entire body of the government personnel employed for the service of the
republic. The military and elected officials of the republic are excluded from this term.
The term ‘Bangladesh Public Service Commission’ has been operationally defined in this
study to refer to an institution or a body which is accountable for executing the
functions12 as proclaimed in the Constitution of Bangladesh. In this report, the term
‘PSC’ is used for ‘Bangladesh Public Service Commission’.
1.5 Methodology
The study is empirical and descriptive in nature. Both qualitative and quantitative data
have been presented in this report. The types of data collection tools have been
determined on the basis of field situation and nature of informants. The information
obtained from both primary and secondary sources have been used to complement each
other.
1.5.1 Sources of Information
Information collected from both secondary and primary sources has been used in this
study.
Secondary sources of information include books, reports, constitutional and legal
documents, gazette notifications on new appointment in BCS cadres, PSC annual
reports, news and reports published in national print media, and documents collected
from websites.
Primary sources of information include interviews with key informants and candidates
who appeared at BCS examinations (who have faced BCS viva voce at least once). Key
informants consist of PSC officials and staff (including former and present Chairman,
Members, officers and employees), concerned policy makers, eminent bureaucrats,
researchers, and Members of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on the Ministry of
Establishment.13
The following tools were used to collect information from primary sources:
1.5.1.1 Key Informant Interview14
A total of 35 key informants were interviewed based on a set of checklists. The issues
covered in the checklist included the nature and type of irregularities and corruption
within the Commission and the root causes behind such irregularities.
1.5.1.2 Opinion Survey
A survey was conducted among the service recipients (BCS examinees) in order to get
their opinions and views on the irregularities in PSC, especially in the BCS examination.
The questionnaire covered the issues which came out through the discussions with key
informants. The survey was done following non-probability sampling techniques. Major
issues covered in the questionnaire were:
�� Nature of irregularities and corruptions in different stages of BCS Examinations.
�� Informants’ trust on the Chairperson and Members of the PSC, and on declared results
of different exams.
11 Cited in A. M. M. Shawkat Ali, The Lore of the Mandarins: Toward a Non-Partisan Public Service
Commission in Bangladesh, The University Press Limited, Dhaka, 2002, p. 13.
12 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 140.
13 The names of key informants could not be exposed upon their requests for keeping anonymity.
14 The persons who have formal or informal linkages with the PSC, or have extensive knowledge,
ideas and experiences on issues related to the governance and operations of the PSC.
18
�� Influences over the PSC.
�� Right of access to information.
�� Areas of necessary reforms in the BCS examination procedure.
1.5.2 Sampling Technique
Persons who already faced at least one BCS Viva Voce were the population for this
survey. Due to lack of availability of official records of such types of BCS examinees, it
was not possible to prepare a sampling frame. Under this situation, a non-probability
sampling technique (snowball method15) was used and 434 persons were included as
samples for this study. During selection of samples from the field, efforts were made to
cover all possible variations of the population.
The participation of informants in the study was completely voluntary. Persons unwilling
to participate in the survey were skipped. Identity of the informants has not been
disclosed.
1.5.3 Measures for Ensuring Quality of Data
Measures like spot-checking, re-interview and consistency checking were followed to
ensure quality of data. The survey team16, as well as the questionnaire survey were
closely monitored and clinically supervised during the survey.
1.5.4 Data Analysis Plan and Techniques
The findings of the study were presented mostly in non-numerical manner. The case
stories were not only used as complement to the information but also visualised the
issues discussed. Descriptive statistical tools (e.g., pie chart, bar diagram, percentage
distribution and frequency distribution) were used.
1.5.5 Duration of the Study
The study was carried out between January and November 2006.
1.6 Scope of Research
Keeping the objectives of this study in mind, following areas/issues have been covered
in this study:
1. Review of PSC’s constitutional and legal mandate, institutional structure,
administrative and financial management, governance and operations.
2. An overview of BCS examinations – the process, problems, and irregularities. The
reasons for giving priority to BCS exams are due to its importance in terms of
selection of the cream of the future civil servants, and to have a glimpse of the
nature and extent of corruption and irregularities. Moreover, the number of
recommendations made by the PSC through BCS is the highest among all
recommendations made by different types of examinations.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
While conducting the study, the research team went through a number of hurdles. As a
result, this report bears the following limitations.
�� The research team did not receive any official response or co-operation from the PSC
authority and PSC Secretariat. A section of high officials in the PSC, bureaucrats, and
BCS cadres refused to give interview or to participate in the discussions.
15 Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method used when the desired sample
characteristic is rare. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate
additional subjects. This sampling technique is often used in hidden populations, which are difficult
for researchers to access.
16 See Annex 24 for the list of Field Investigators who contributed to the Opinion Survey.
19
�� The very nature of this study required admittance by the BCS candidates as well as
the other party(ies) involved in extra-legal transaction for ensuring selection for the
BCS cadre. Unfortunately, as it is a win-win situation, neither the service receivers nor
the involved official of the PSC admitted to be indulged in such affair. Therefore, this
study has to rely largely on information provided by key informants, which are not
necessarily substantiated by evidence.
�� The available official documents17 cover only a section of the information with regard
to the successful candidates. There is a serious dearth of information with regard to
quota, sex, religion and cadre specific data. As a result, the trend of the
representation of women and minority community in Bangladesh Civil Service since
1972 could not be identified. The collection of gazette notifications was very
challenging and their sorting was also labour-intensive.
1.8 Structure of the Report
This report consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 deals with the context, conceptual
framework of the study, nature of PSC, review of existing literature, rationale,
objectives, methodology, and scope of the study. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the
constitutional and legal framework of the PSC, and its scope and functions. An overview
of the institutional structure of the PSC has been provided in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the
nature and extent of irregularities and corruption that occur in the PSC is discussed in
detail. A diagnosis of the limitations of the PSC is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6
provides the conclusion and a set of policy recommendations for promoting excellence in
governance within the PSC.
17 Based on PSC Annual Reports, published results, and gazette notifications on new appointments
to BCS Cadres. For the list see references.
20
Chapter 2
Bangladesh Public Service Commission:
Constitutional and Legal Framework
PSC, like the FPSC during British India and CPSC and EPPSC during Pakistani period
(1947-1971), is a Constitutional body with advisory status and functions. In order to
understand the activities of the PSC, it is imperative to have an overview of the
constitutional and legal mandate available for the PSC. This chapter presents a brief
overview of the provisions as laid in the Constitution of Bangladesh, relevant laws and
regulations, and the scope and functions of the PSC.
2.1 Constitutional and Legal Framework
The position, status, scope and functions of PSC have been clearly determined by the
Constitution of Bangladesh. Articles 137 to 141 of the Constitution of the People’s
Republic of Bangladesh set out in clear and unambiguous terms the scheme for the
establishment of the Commission(s), appointment and re-appointment of Chairman and
Members, conditions of appointment, terms of office, provisions of resignation, functions
of the Commission, and annual report. Any sort of addition, alteration, substitution of the
existing provisions can only be made through act(s) passed by the national parliament
through certain special amendment procedures specified in the Constitution (Ahmed,
1990:175).
2.1.1 Establishment of the Commission
Article 137 of the Constitution of Bangladesh gives mandate to establish one or more
Commissions for the public services of the republic. Accordingly, the Government of
Bangladesh established two Commissions titled PSC First and PSC Second on 9 May
1972.18 The present PSC called ‘Bangladesh Public Service Commission’ was established
on 22 December 1977 by merging the existing two Commissions.19
2.1.2 Number of Members
The total number of Members of PSC has been fixed at six (minimum) and 15
(maximum), including a Chairman.20 An amendment was made in 1997 for fixing the
number of Members at 11.
2.1.3 The Appointing Authority
Under the existing Constitutional mandates, the President of the People’s Republic of
Bangladesh appoints the Chairman and Members of the PSC with due advice from the
Prime Minster.21 According to the Constitution, the terms of office of the Chairman and
other Members of PSC expires five years after the date on which s/he entered the office,
or when s/he attains the age of sixty-five years, whichever is earlier.22
2.1.4 Qualification and Eligibility Criteria for Chairman and Members
According to the Constitution, not less than one-half of the Members of a Commission
shall be persons who have held office for twenty years or more in the service of any
18 President Order No. 34 of 1972. PSC First was mainly responsible for conducting examinations
and tests for selection of suitable persons for appointment to gazetted and non-gazetted civil
services (including Class I & II) and civil posts. PSC Second was responsible for conducting tests
and exams for selection of persons for the non-gazetted services (e.g., Class III services and posts
in the statutory bodies).
19 This was done under PSC Ordinance No. LVII of 1977.
20 PSC Ordinance No. LVII of 1977.
21 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 138(1).
22 Ibid, Article 139.
21
The interested candidates contact with the high command of ruling party
(policy maker of ruling party, Prime Minister’s Secretary, PM’s Political
Adviser, and powerful bureaucrat, influential leaders of pro-ruling party
professional bodies)
The interested candidates meet with the above mentioned persons and try
to manage them by saying that he/she would be the best choice for
serving the interest of the ruling party
A short list of prospective candidate is prepared
Previous political background and contribution to the ruling party and level
of loyalty is collected through special branch personnel
The final name is confirmed either by PM’s political adviser or PM’s political
secretary
The proposed name(s) is sent to the Prime Minister for approval
Finally the names are sent to the President for Appointment
A Set of bio-data is collected for the vacant position
government, which has at any time functioned within the territory of Bangladesh.23
However, the Constitution has not prescribed any transparent procedure for appointment
of PSC Chairman and Members.
Figure 2: Procedures Followed in Appointing Chairman and Members
2.1.5 Rank of the Chairman and Members
Under the existing Warrant of Precedence (1986), the Chairman of PSC is equivalent to
the Secretary of the Government (i.e., number “16”) and the ranks of PSC Members is
“20” which is equivalent to Additional Secretary of the government. It is noteworthy that
the ranks of the Attorney General and Auditor-General of Bangladesh (both of these are
also constitutional positions) are ranked “16”. On the other hand, the ranks of the Chief
Election Commissioner and Judges of the Supreme Court (Appellate Division) are “8”.24
2.1.6 Terms and Conditions of Service
The law titled Members of the Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Terms and
Conditions of Service)25 has determined the terms and conditions of the services of
Chairman and Members of PSC. The law determined (a) the salaries of the Chairman and
Members, (b) entitlement to residential, transport, and telephone facilities, and (c)
leave, gratuity, provident fund, travelling allowance and medical facilities.26
23 Ibid, Article 138(2).
24 See Annex 3 for details on Warrant of Precedence.
25 Act No. XXI of 1974.
26. In February 2006, on the basis of Article 138(2) of the Constitution, the existing act was
revised titled The Members of the Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Terms and Conditions of
Service) (Amendment) Act 2006 increasing the salary of PSC Chairman and Members under a new
Act.
22
2.1.7 Conduct of Business
The PSC (Conduct of Business) Rules (1981) made certain legal provisions for regulating
the conduct of its business, e.g. proceedings of the Commission, procedure of the
Commission in regard to recruitment to the public services, procedure of the Commission
in regard to the disciplinary and other matters.
2.1.8 Removal and Termination
The Constitution mentioned that the Chairman and other Members of PSC should be
removed from office like a judge of the Supreme Court.27 Further, a Chairman or other
Members of the PSC may resign his office by writing under his own hand addressed to
the President. However, the Constitution has given mandates for re-appointment of a
Chairman/Member(s) for further one term in PSC if his or her age is found eligible.28
2.1.9 Safeguards of the PSC
The Constitutional and legal mandates and documents on PSC may be termed as
safeguards for the Commission. The good governance of PSC, its recipient-friendly
operations/services and the credibility of the Commission depend on the proper
utilisation of these safeguards by the concerned authority and personnel.29
2.2 Scope and Functions of the PSC
The scope and functions of the PSC have been designed largely in keeping with PSC rules
under the Government of India Act of 1919 and 1935, and East Pakistan Public Service
Commission (EPPSC) with little bit modification by the government of Bangladesh.
According to the existing Constitutional and legal provisions, PSC is essentially an
advisory, consultative and ‘quasi-judicial’ body rather than an executive one. In other
words, PSC was not given executive power to control civil services as contemplated by
the Act of 1919 and Lee Commission.30
The scope and functions of the PSC is limited to giving recommendations and advice on
civil service management related issues e.g., framing recruitment rules and procedures;
recruitment, promotion, transfer, discipline, and give advise the President on any matter
related to the civil service. However, the PSC may ask the concerned ministries or
authorities which does not accept its advice to explain (a) the reasons why it was not
accepted; (b) the cases where the commission ought to have been consulted but was not
consulted, and (c) the reasons why it was not consulted. In this connection, Ahmed
(1990:20) viewed that the effectiveness of the PSC depends on the unwritten but firmly
established convention that the advice of a Commission is accepted as a matter of
course.
Although PSC is an independent Constitutional body, and its independence and
autonomy have been guaranteed under provisions made in the Constitution and
President’s Orders, as per Schedule I of the Rules of Business (issued in 1975), the
Ministry of Establishment solely controls the policy decisions, composition, administration
and financial matters of the Commission. The Establishment Division of the ministry
interprets and determines the broad scope of functional responsibilities of PSC through
27 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 139(2). It states that, “The chairman and other
members of such a Commission shall be removed from office except in like manner and on he like
grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court.” Article 139(3) states that, “A chairman or other
members of a Public Service Commission may resign his office by writing under his own hand
addressed to the President.”
28 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 139(1)(4). On ceasing to hold office, a member of a
public service Commission shall not be eligible for further employment in the service of the
Republic, but, subject to the provisions of clause (1) - a chairman so ceasing shall be eligible for
re-appointment for one further term; and (b) a member (other than the chairman) so ceasing
shall be eligible for re-appointment for one further term or for appointment as chairman of a PSC.
29 See Annex 4 for details on laws, rules and procedures concerning the formation and functions of
the PSC.
30 Report of the Memoranda Submitted by the Government of India and the India Office to the
Indian Statutory Commission, Vol. V. Part II, London, HMSO, 1930, p. 1312-1330.
23
An example of PSC’s advice on
revision of recruitment rules
policy
The Commission thinks that persons with
at least post-graduate degree should be
given opportunity to compete as well as
get job in the gazetted posts / positions in
the changing era. The Commission hopes
that all concerned ministries / divisions /
departments would take initiative on
urgent basis for necessary changes in the
existing recruitment rules, methods and
procedures.
Source: PSC Annual Report, 2005, p. 36
issuing various orders, instructions, memoranda, circulars and so forth.31 The functional
jurisdiction of the Commission now covers only gazetted Class I and Class II officers
belonging to government bodies (Zafarulla and Khan, 2005:103).
The major functions of PSC are as follows:
2.2.1 Framing Recruitment Rules
The role of PSC in framing recruitment rules for
both cadre and non-cadre officials are clearly
specified in the Constitution. Accordingly, in
January 1981, the Ministry of Establishment
made a comprehensive set of recruitment rules
titled The Establishment Manual of 1980 with
due consultation with the PSC. In fact, as the
first ever in Bangladesh, this manual clearly
fixed the number of posts in cadre services,
specified recruitment methods, age limit and
qualifications of the candidates. As an advisory
body, the PSC gives advice to the various
ministries/divisions and attached departments
on framing recruitment-related rules for the
services/posts under their control including
matters relating to (i) the determination of
qualifications for and methods of recruitment to
such services/posts; (ii) principles to be followed in making recruitments, promotions
and transfers to and within such services/posts under the government (Ahmed,
1986:303).
2.2.2 Recruitment of Suitable Candidates for the Public Services
The PSC is responsible for conducting competitive tests and examinations for the
selection of most competent persons for the 1st class gazetted and non-gazetted
posts/positions of the Republic.32 The PSC has the legal mandate to select the suitable
persons and give recommendation for appointment to the concerned ministry or
departments.33 This is being done through the following methods since 1972.
Examinations: No recruitment policy or procedure was made till 1981 for recruitment of
first class gazetted civil servants of the republic. As a result, PSC arranged competitive
examinations for the recruitment of 1st class gazetted officers in different names during
1972-1981. The recruitment rules for the selection of civil servants were made in 1981.
Under these rules, the first BCS examination was conducted in 1983. Similar
examinations have continued till today. From the beginning of PSC, the Commission
recommended a total of 41,413 persons (including 39,431 persons through BCS exams
and 1982 through BCS equivalent exams held until 1982) for 1st class gazetted cadres
through competitive tests and exams.34
Selection/Interview: Interview is a widely practiced method for recruitment of civil
servants for the republic. The available information shows that the PSC has selected a
total number of 18,011 persons through interview during 1972-2005. It has been
observed that about 55 percent of all recruitments through interview have been done by
the governments during 1977-1985. Since 2002, no information on this type of
recruitment has been found.35
Promotion: This type of recruitment is conducted by giving promotion to persons
belonging to non-gazetted and Class I posts. In such cases, the ME sends list of the
31 The Establishment Manual, Vol. I, 1980, pp. 99-114.
32 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 140.
33 BPSC Annual Report, 2001, p. 15-16.
34 See Annex 5 for an overview of BCS or equivalent recruitments since 1972.
35 See Annex 6 for details on recruitments through interview.
24
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
BCS or
Equivalent
('72-'07)
By
Interview
('72-'05)
Transfer &
Ad hoc Basis
('73-'00)
Through
Promotion
('72-'05)
Type of Recruitment
Total Number
proposed candidates to the Commission together with their service documents, service
records (Annual Confidential Reports - ACR) and recruitment rules. The Commission
gives advice to the President in respect of the candidates who are recommended
depending on whether they have the requisite character and ability for the service or
post for which they are proposed for appointment.36 The PSC recommended in favour of
22,911 persons for promotional recruitments during 1972 to 2005.37
Figure 3: Status of Recruitments done by BPSC (1972-2005)38
Transfer and Ad Hoc Appointments: For appointments by transfer and deputation of
persons from one service to another and to recruit persons on ad hoc basis, the
concerned ministry/departments seek recommendations from the PSC via the ME. The
Commission advises the President in respect of any candidate nominated if his/her
qualifications are sufficient and if his/her record proves him/her to have the requisite
character and ability for the post. The PSC has recommended in favour of 24,230
candidates for their appointment on ad hoc basis during 1973 to 2000. It was observed
that about 95.33% ad hoc appointments were made within six years of the
independence of Bangladesh.
2.2.3 An Overview of All Recruitments Done by the PSC (1972 – 2007)
Since the inception of the PSC in 1972, the highest number of recruitments has been
made through BCS or equivalent39 examinations (41,413), followed by promotional
examinations (22,911), interview (18,011) and recruitments on ad hoc basis (24,230).
2.2.4 Giving Advice on Disciplinary, Appeal and Memorial Matters
As per provision made by the Constitution of Bangladesh40, PSC carries out departmental
inquiries into disciplinary and appeal matters of the pubic services and gives
recommendations to the concerned ministries for necessary departmental actions.41 It
was found that abut 82.34% of the disciplinary cases referred from the Ministry of
Establishment have been disposed by the Commission since 1972, while about 17.66%
cases were kept pending during the same period.42
36 The Bangladesh Pubic Service Commission (Conduct of Business) Rules, 1981, p.4.
37 See Annex 11 for details about promotional recruitments.
38 Prepared on the basis of Gazette Notifications of ME; Ali (2002); and PSC Annual Reports.
39 This is the total number of BCS (or equivalent) cadre officers since 1972. But for determining
the sample size, a total of 19 BCS exams (out of 25) were considered. It was not possible to
collect information on the remaining BCS exams (e.g., 1-4th, 6th, 12th, 23rd) during this study.
40 Clause 2 (d), Article 140, The Constitution of Bangladesh, 2000.
41 The Bangladesh Pubic Service Commission (Conduct of Business) Rules, 1981, p.5. It states that
“The records of such cases shall be forwarded to the Commission and the opinion given by the
Commission shall be part of the record of the case and shall be communicated to the officer
concerned along with the orders of the authority empowered to pass orders in the case.”
42 See Annex 8 for details on disposal of disciplinary cases by the Commission.
25
2.2.5 Preparing and Submitting Annual Report
Preparing annual report on the performance of Commission’s functions (year long
activities of the PSC) and then submitting it to the President of the Republic is a
mandatory function of the PSC.
A number of limitations was identified with regard to the annual reports of the PSC.
�� It was observed that the annual reports of successive years same issues are
repeated.43 This reflects the fact that preparation of annual report by PSC is almost
as a routine work. The measures for ensuring the quality of the report get a little
priority.
�� Information about the number of recommendations under quota is absent.44
�� The reports hardly have detail discussion on (a) the cases, if any, in which its advise
was not accepted and the reasons why it was not accepted; (b) the cases where the
Commission ought to have been consulted and was not consulted, and the reasons
why it was not consulted.
�� The annual report provides only a descriptive list of the Chairman and Members,
officers and staff but contains no information about their job description and previous
professional background as well as their outstanding achievements.
From the above discussion, it is evident that the PSC works as an ‘advisory’,
‘consultative’ and ‘quasi-judicial’ body rather than an executive one. The functions are
clearly described by constitutional mandates, government orders and establishment
manuals of the country. However, there are a number of constitutional and legal
limitations. In the Constitution, there is no mention about its independence. The
qualification and eligibility criteria of the Chairman and Members are insufficient. The
recruitment procedure of the Chairman and Members is not transparent. There is
absence of accountability measure – the role of parliament is not clear, the mechanism
for removal and termination of Chairman and Members is weak. There is no operations
principle (core values), scope and functions specified in any supporting law. There is no
provision for budget in the Constitution. Access to information is not guaranteed in the
Constitution, and such access is limited/restricted by different regulations. Moreover,
there is no provision for making challenges against the decisions taken by the PSC.
43 Ali, 2002:263.
44 According to some of the key informants, the Commission hides the information on the
recommended candidates under quota intentionally in order to save the persons involved in the
irregularity that act as a bar against the selection of candidates from minority community.
26
Chapter 3
Institutional Structure
The term good governance45 is one of the widely used development concepts in the
recent era. Today, it is acknowledged that poor governance is the root cause of
irregularities and corruption in any public service delivery organisation, institution or any
other entity. PSC is not an exception in this regard. One central focus of this study is to
unearth the root causes of irregularities and corruption in PSC. While doing this, it has
been found that the deficiencies in the governance of PSC opened the frontiers of
irregularities and corruption to a great extent.
The governance issues of PSC have been briefly discussed through an overview of the
institutional structure of the PSC in this chapter.
3.1 Organogram of the PSC: The Commission
There are two management lines in PSC i.e., the Commission and Secretariat. The
Chairman of PSC is solely responsible for its administration and overall management.
According to the present structure,46 there are in total eight constitutional posts – one
Chairman and seven (7) Members at the PSC. However, it should be noted that four new
Members were appointed in 1997.47 According to the organogram, the Members are to
work under the Chairman. Four Directors work under four Members, and the Chief
Psychologist works under one of these four. The Secretariat of the PSC is assigned to
one Member.
3.2 Procedure of Work of the Commission
The Chairman of the Commission control overall administration and policy making
activities of PSC. The Chairman also issues necessary orders for making the work
schedule and distribution of work among the members and officers of the Commission’s
Secretariat after due consultation with all other members.48 The Chairman can assign
any member to perform any particular work of the Commission.
3.3 Professional Background of PSC Chairman and Members49
During the Pakistani period between 1947 and 1971, eight Chairmen were appointed for
the Central PSC, while seven were appointed for the PSC of East Pakistan. The Chairmen
of the CPSC and EPPSC were mostly appointed from government officers. However, after
the independence of Bangladesh, so far ten (10) Chairmen have been appointed till date.
Six of the Chairmen have been appointed from non-civil service background – five
professors from Dhaka University and one college teacher. Since 1991, all the successive
Chairmen of the PSC have been appointed from University teachers.
Similar trend can be identified in the appointment of Members to the PSC. During the
British and Pakistani periods, majority of the Members came from the civil service
45 The term is used here to refer to governance which is transparent, accountable, equitable and
responsive to the needs of the people, rule by law and free from any sort of irregularity and
corruption, free from all types of negative influences and promotes excellence in governance
practices.
46 As approved by the President of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh on 24 December 1988 and
then notified in the Gazettes No. SM/New Appointment/1E-4/86-32, 6 February 1989. For details
see Annex 9.
47 It was not possible to collect the latest organisational structure of PSC from PSC as the
concerned authority in PSC refused to provide any information on the organogram.
48 The Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Conduct of Business) Rules, 1981.
49 See Annex 10 for backgrounds of PSC Chairmen since 1947.
27
75
12.5 12.5
28.57
42.86
14.29 14.29
30
60
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Civil
Servant
VC Army
Officer
Govt.
Officer
Judge
CPPSC (1947-1971) 8
persons
EPPSC (1947-1971) 7 persons BPSC (1972-2006 10
persons
Type of PSCs in Different Periods
Percentage
Civil
Servant
VC Civil
Servant
Univ./
College
Teacher
Govt.
Officer
(47.8% and 69.2% respectively). On the other hand, since the independence, PSC
Members were largely from universities and colleges (45.57%) (Figure 4).50
Figure 4: Professional Background of Chairmen
prior to Joining the PSC (1947-2006)51
Figure 5: Professional Background of Members
Prior to joining the PSC (1947-2006)52
50 See Annex 11 for background of PSC Members since 1947.
51 Prepared based on Ahmed (1990: 201-227) and BPSC Annual Reports.
52 Ibid.
21.74
8.7
69.2
7.69 7.69 7.69 7.69
21.52
7.59
3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 2.53 1.27
47.82 45.57
6.33
4.35 4.35 4.35 4.35 4.35
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Civil
Servant
University
Teacher
Judge
Govt
Servant
Military
Officer
Political
Leader
Advocate
Police
Officers
Civil
Servant
College
Teacher
Judge
Political
Leader
Engineer
Civil
Servant
Uni 22,
Coll 11,
Police
Officers
Engineer
Govt
Servant
Military
Officer
Judge
Scientist
& others
Advocate
Political
Leader
CPPSC (1947-1971) 23 persons EPPSC (1947-1971)
13 persons
BPSC (1972-2006) 79 persons
Type of PSC and Duration
Percentage
28
3.4 PSC Secretariat
The Secretary is the administrative head of the commission’s secretariat. The Chairman
and Members of the Commission, in fact, give all sorts of policy decisions/directions to
the Secretariat of the Commission. The PSC Secretariat is responsible for implementing
the decisions taken by the Commission. The Ministry of Establishment sends all
correspondences to the Chairman and Members of the Commission through PSC
Secretariat. An Additional Secretary of the Government of Bangladesh is given
appointment as Secretary to the PSC Secretariat. The Commission has no power to
compel the concerned ministries or departments to implement its recommendations /
advice. The authorities may or may not accept PSC’s recommendations.
3.4.1 Functional Units of the PSC Secretariat at a Glance
For better coordination and smooth implementation of PSC’s ongoing operations, the
Secretariat is divided into 11 Sections/Unites. These are, Administrative Section53,
Recruitment Section, two (2) Examination Sections, Confidential Section, Computer
Section, Accounts Section, Psychology Section, Research Section, BCS Cadre section,
Library Section, etc.54 An overview of the important units of BPSC is given below.
Administrative Section: This section is responsible for over all supervision of the tasks
of various sections in the Headquarter, as well as, in the zonal offices. The major tasks
of the Administration Section are to:
�� Maintain communication with ministries/divisions and their attached departments.
�� Deal with service matters of all non-gazetted employees in the PSC.
�� Prepare working papers and to attend meetings of the Commission and to circulate
minutes of the meetings to all concerned.
�� Face visitors to the PSC and provide necessary information as per their demand.;
�� Attend meetings in the ministries/divisions on behalf of the PSC.;
�� Responsible for maintenance and control of office vehicles, equipments, etc.; and
�� Implement all orders taken by the commission.
Recruitment Section: This section is responsible for arranging all sorts of competitive
tests and exams for selection of suitable persons to the vacant posts (1st and 2nd class
gazetted posts) of the republic.
Confidential Section: This section is mainly responsible for tabulation, scrutiny and
prepare merit list, and keep records of all documents and result sheets of the
examinees.
Computer Section: This section is created for data entry, composing of all documents
of various units (including draft Annual Report), putting on the registration numbers in
the admit card through OMR Scanning machine, preparing attendance sheet of all
exams, scrutinising answer sheets through OMR scanning machine, delivering duplicate
admit card, and assisting research section.55
Accounts Section: This section is responsible for dealing with the accounts and finance
matters of the PSC.
Psychology Section: This section conducts psychological tests and exams for the
examinees. This unit has recently been abolished.
Research Section: This unit is responsible to carry out research on the background of
the candidates. The findings of the research are given in the annual reports.
53 Syed Giasuddin Ahmed, Bangladesh Public Service Commission, University of Dhaka,
Bangladesh, 1990, p. 133.
54 BPSC Annual Report 2005, p.6.
55 Ibid, pp. 34-35.
29
Library Section: The Chairman and Members of the Commission, officers and
employees of the Secretariat use this library. Researchers from several organisations can
use it with appropriate approval. This library contains more than 20 thousand books, 18
Bangla and English daily newspapers, and several national and international magazines.
This library was established with its own budget. Modern cataloguing system e.g., AACR-
2 has been followed for arranging all books and documents in the library.
3.4.2 PSC Headquarter Regional Offices
The PSC does not have its own building till today. At present, the headquarters of BPSC
is located in the old airport building at Tejgaon in Dhaka. PSC’s own 11 storied building
is now under construction at Agargaon, Dhaka.
A total of five Regional Offices of the PSC Secretariat have been established in the
divisional cities and towns, i.e., Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Barishal, and Sylhet, with
a view to ensure easy access to PSC’s services for the service recipients of these
divisions. More specifically, the functions of the zonal offices include disseminating
general and specific information regarding job prospects in the government service,
supplying application forms to persons seeking government service, shifting application
received at the zonal offices, issuing letters of interview or admit cards, and arranging
competitive examinations/interviews. A total of ten employees work in each zonal office
(including one 1st class officer, one 2nd class officer, three 3rd class and five 4th class
employees). One Assistant Director (1st class officer) heads each Regional Office.
3.4.3 Human Resource in the PSC
A total of 344 positions (62 positions as 1st class, 52 as 2nd class, 134 as 3rd class and 96
as 4th class) are allocated for the secretariat of the Commission.56 It was observed that
the PSC is running short of adequate human resource. A total of 51 positions (15 percent
of total posts) mentioned as vacant in the Commission’s 2005 Annual Report. At present,
out of the 11 units of the Secretariat there are only seven (7) Directors for 7 units and
the four units are administered by four (4) Deputy Directors.
3.4.4 Procedures of Staff Recruitment in the PSC
The first recruitment rules for recruitment of the Officers and employees of the PSC were
passed by the government through a gazette notification on 22 April 1982.57 These rules
cover the information on the name of the posts, qualification and eligibility criteria
regarding the posts i.e., education, age, and methods of recruitment. This rule was then
replaced by another revised rule promulgated by the government.58 The PSC 1st class
non-gazetted officers (or Assistant Director) are recruited by the PSC like other nongazetted
employees of the republic. Other employees (belonging to 2nd to 4th Class) of
the PSC are also recruited under the existing recruitment rules mandated.
3.4.5 Non-Transferable Job
PSC officers and employees are not transferred to other ministries, departments, or
statutory bodies of the government. The 1st class officers are transferred to the Regional
Offices but they return back to the central office immediately after being promoted as
Deputy Secretary, since the regional offices has no such position.
56 See Annex 12 for details of the human resource at the PSC.
57 PSC Officers and Employees Recruitment Rules, Government of Bangladesh, Chief Martial Law
Administrator Secretariat, Establishment Division, Recruitment Section, Notification, Dhaka, April
21, 1982.
58 PSC Officers and Employees Recruitment Rules, Government of Bangladesh, Ministry of
Establishment, Administration Section, Notification, Dhaka, November 21, 1990.
30
3.5 Financial Issues
3.5.1 Budgetary Regulations
The PSC is a constitutional body. However, its budget is approved by the Ministry of
Finance. The annual audit is done by the Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General
(CAG). From the available data, it is observed that during 1997 and 2005 in most of the
years the PSC overspent according to its income.59 The net budget received from the
state treasury was 14% to 31% during the same period. However, only in 2002 the PSC
had surplus income (17%) more than that of its internal expenditure. All types of
procurement in the PSC also need sanctions by the concerned ministry. All earnings of
the PSC (e.g., application fees and examination charges realised from the examinees) go
to the government treasury. Moreover, the PSC always has to depend on the Ministry of
Establishment’s patronage for the sanction of house rents, travelling allowances and
medical benefits for its Chairman, Members and staff (Ahmed, 1990:141).
Figure 6: Income and Expenditure of the PSC (1997 – 2005)
Allegations were made about the grabbing of internal entertaining allowance and special
remuneration for the Commissions over years. It was further alleged that the audit team
of CAGB is managed with bribe. Key informants from the PSC informed that there is very
special budget which varies between Tk. one lac to five lac (Tk 1,00,000 – Tk 5,00,000)
for managing the audit team.
It may be noted that the Commission is able to meet all of its expenditures with its
earnings. This can only be made possible through the proper utilisation of the
Commission’s annual expenditures in a fair, transparent, justified and accountable way.
59 For detail of PSC’s yearly budget, see Annex 23.
5.642 5.767
5.141
3.246
3.968 3.872
4.886 4.822 4.677
5.265
6.803
6.584
-1.035
-1.443
2.741
4.036
5.023
3.334
2.313
3.564
-0.850
-1.258
0.966
-0.242
-1.228
-0.538
-0.934
-2.000
-1.000
0.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
6.000
7.000
8.000
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Year
In Crore Taka
Income Expenditure Balance (crore Tk)
31
Chapter 4
BCS Examinations:
Irregularities and Corruption
Among all the functions of the PSC as laid in the Constitution of Bangladesh, the most
important is the conduction of Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) examinations. BCS
examination is seen as the gateway for entry into the most prestigious civil service of
the republic.
However, allegations were made over the years against different types of irregularities
with regard to BCS examinations. All the daily newspapers published reports/views and
opinions on different irregularities in BCS exam over the years. Such allegations include
leakage of BCS question papers, selection of civil servants on political connection,60 and
nepotism and corruption of few Members, officials and employees. The irregularities in
the whole BCS process have tainted the image of the constitutional body, as well as, its
past glory in its recruiting process.
In this chapter, an overview of BCS examinations has been explored. This includes the
process, problems, and irregularities involved in BCS examinations. The reasons for
giving priority to BCS exams are due to its importance in terms of selection of the cream
of the future civil servants, and to have a glimpse of the nature and extent of corruption
and irregularities. Moreover, the number of recommendations made by the PSC through
BCS is the highest among all recommendations made by different types of examinations.
4.1 An Overview of PSC‘s Recruitment Activities (1972-March 2007)
During 1972- March 2007, PSC has selected a total number of 41,413 persons through
BCS examinations or equivalent type of exams61 in 28 cadres.62 This is followed by
24,230 persons on ad hoc basis (1973-2000), 22,911 persons through promotional
examination (1972-2005) and 18,011 persons through interview (1972-2005).63
From 1972 to 1981, before the establishment of the single PSC merging the two PSCs, a
total number of 1,982 persons were recommended through seven Superior Service
Examinations or equivalent examinations. Needless to mention here that all of the
recommendations were made for the 1st Class Gazetted Officers.
Since 1982 onwards, a total number of 39,431 persons have been recommended by the
PSC through 27 BCS Examinations. Among these, ten (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 12th, 14th,
16th, 19th, and 26th BCS Examinations) were special BCS Exams. The 23rd BCS was
conducted for the recruitment of the dependants of the freedom fighters. However, the
result was withheld through a High Court injunction. It is pertinent to mention that the
process of this examination started during one government and finished during the
successive government. The result of the 23rd BCS examination was withheld mainly due
to government interference.
The average time spent for each BCS Examination (General) was 24.75 months and 14
months for BCS Examination (Special).64 However, the average time spent for BCS
60 The Daily Shamokal, January 28, 2007; The Daily Sangbad, October 1, 2006; The Daily Inquilab
April 2, 2006; The Bangladesh Observer, July 26, 2005; The Daily Star, March 4, 2005; The Daily
Ittefaq, September 28, 2005.
61 This is the total number of BCS (or equivalent) cadre officers since 1972. See Annex 5 for details
on the candidates recruited through BCS and BCS Equivalent Examinations.
62 See Annex 13 for details on list of BCS Cadres.
63 The above data is based collected published materials such as the Annual Reports of the PSC
and Ali (2002).
64 For details see Annex 13A on the time spent for each BCS exam.
32
examinations since 1982 was 20.08 months. The process include from the formation of
the committee to publication of the result. It has been observed that the examinations
process of the 21st and the 22nd BCS took more than 35 months. The process of these
examinations started during one government and ended during the following
government. The 24th BCS examination was delayed as the preliminary test was taken
twice. The first time it was alleged that the question paper of the preliminary test was
leaked out, and later this was cancelled by the PSC facing strong protest from the
candidates.
However, it is noteworthy that all the candidates recommended by the PSC are not
appointed. Based on the collected Gazette Notifications of 19 BCS examinations, it was
observed that 8.43% (2,736 out of 32,464) BCS examinees recommended by the PSC
finally did not get BCS job (Figure 7).65
Figure 7: BCS Candidates Dropped by the Ministry of Establishment66
4.1.1 Representation of Religious and Ethnic Minority67
Equal opportunity for all citizens in respect of employment or office in the service of the
republic irrespective of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth has been clearly
proclaimed in the Constitution.68 At the same time, the Constitution has not prevented
the state from making any special provision in favour of any backward section of citizens
for the purpose of securing their adequate representation in the service of the republic.69
PSC is expected to follow Constitutional mandates during selection of competent persons
for the civil service of the republic.
There is 5% tribal quota for the ethnic minorities. Till date the total number of
candidates from religious and ethnic minorities getting BCS job is 3,163 (10.67% of total
recruitment through BCS). Among them 8.46% were for general cadres and 11.27% for
professional cadres.
65 See Annex 14 for an overview of BCS examinees recommended by BPSC but dropped by the
Ministry of Establishment.
66 Gazette Notifications and BPSC Annual Reports.
67 See Annex 15 for details of BCS Cadre officers Notified in the Gazettes (by sex and religion).
68 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 29 (3).
69 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 29 (2).
Notified in
the
Gazettes,
92%
Dropped
cases 8%
33
14% 14%
12%
15%
12%
8%
4%
5%
4%
7%
8% 8%
4%
5%
4%
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
5th
(1986)
7th
(1988)
8th
(1989)
9th (1991) 10th
(1991)
11th
(1993)
13th
(1994)
15th
(1995)
17th
(1998)
18th
(1999)
20th
(2001)
21st
(2003)
22nd
(2003)
24th
(2005)
25th
(2006)
BCS Exam & Year
Percentage
Figure 8: Representation of Religious and Ethnic Minority
However, during conducting the study, any official document or research on the trend of
representation of minority community (in terms of religion and ethnicity) in the
Bangladesh Civil Service was not found. Based on information of 19 Gazettes70 that were
available to the research team, it is observed that in case of general cadre, there was a
sharp decline from 11th BCS examination (held in 1993) and continued until 15th BCS
exam (1995). Again from 20th BCS examination the representation of religious minority
community in BCS professional cadres began to decrease which continued till 26th BCS
examination (2006).71 The trend72 shows that the representation of the Hindu, Buddhist
and Christian BCS examinees appointed to BCS jobs (including 5% quota for tribal
population) in the cadres73 was noticeably higher during 1982-1990 than that of 1991-
1996, 2001-2006 and 1996-2001.
4.1.2 Representation of Women in BCS Cadres
Women constitute almost half of the country’s population. A large portion of the
workforce consists of the female workers. However, so far only about one-fifth of the
BCS cadre officers has been recruited from females. The number of female examinees
getting BCS job is 6,142 (20.73%), among whom 15.39% belonged to general cadres,
and 22.16% professional cadres.74 The representation of women in the general cadre has
gradually been increasing since the 5th BCS examination.
4.2 Procedure of Selection and Appointment for BCS Cadres
The selection and final appointment of a BCS cadre require a bulk of activities. Both the
New Appointment Section of the Ministry of Establishment and the PSC have to be
involved directly in these activities. The involvement of the ministry and the PSC can be
described as follows.
70 It is pertinent to mention that the study team identified sex and religion of persons notified in
the collected gazettes manually. Based on religion, all BCS cadre officers were divided into two
groups – Muslims and other religions (Hindu, Buddhist and Christian). The tribal cadre officers
were included in the other religions category.
71 Representation of religious and ethnic minority in BCS Professional Cadre.
72 Information on the 1st to 4th, 6th, and 12th BCS Exams were not included here due to failure to
collect these Gazette Notifications.
73 General cadres like administration, police, foreign affaires, customs and taxation etc. are
fundamentally important in the public administration of Bangladesh.
74 See Annex 16B for details representation of women in BCS Cadre (General and Professional).
34
Requisition: Different ministries, directorates, divisions, and statutory bodies send
requisition to the New Appointment Section of the Ministry of Establishment to select
BCS Officers through BCS examination. The New Appointment Section of the Ministry of
Establishment sends letter to the PSC Secretary to select suitable persons for vacant
posts. This letter covers recruitment policy, procedures, and total vacant posts against
cadres. PSC Secretary receives requisition and sends it to the Chairman for necessary
action.
Formation of Examination Committee: A three-member Exam Committee is formed
(one Member as Chairman of the committee, Controller and one Director of PSC). The
committee is given responsibility to conduct the whole BCS exam.
Initial Activities of BCS Exam: A number of activities follow the formation of the
examination committee. The date of distribution of the application form and banks, total
vacant posts and cadres, eligibility/non-eligibility of applicants, required documents to be
submitted, the examination fee, conditions of the examinations, examination rules,
recruitment process and policy, and the authority of the PSC are fixed and mentioned
though circulars in newspapers.
Preparation of Question Papers: The Chairman of the Examination Committee (CEC)
selects at least three examiners for one subject. The CEC then contacts with the
examiners, and requests them to send draft question. A guideline is also sent to the
examiners. The CEC sits with the question makers and finalises question papers and
then gets these type-written by his/her trusted staff. The question papers are finalised
under direct supervision of the CEC. Question papers are preserved in the Triple
Protected Control Room in the PSC. The question papers are then printed from BG Press
and preserved with maximum security.
Different Stages of the Examination: Preliminary test, written test, and viva voce are
held according to the schedule.
Preparation of Merit List: A merit list prepared after examining the answer sheets
checked by concerned experts i.e., teachers of different universities, and after the
tabulation is done.
Publication of Result: The PSC publishes the result and sends the list of selected
candidates to the ministry with recommendation for appointment.
Police verification and Medical Check-up: Police verification is arranged by the
Ministry with the support from the Ministry of Home Affairs. Medical check-up is arranged
by the Ministry of Establishment with the support from the Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare.
Final Appointment: Final appointment is given by the Ministry of Establishment
through Gazette Notification.
35
Figure 9: Stages of BCS Examination
Activities of
Ministry of
Establishment
Activities of the Min.
of Establishment
Activities of the
Bangladesh Public Service Commission
Publication of results
List of selected
candidates sent to ME
Recommendation for
appointment
Police verification
Medical Exam
Final Appointment given by ME through Gazette Notification
Initial Activities of BCS Exam
Date of distribution of the application form and banks; total vacant posts
& cadres; eligibility/non-eligibility of applicants; required documents;
exam fee; conditions of exam; exam rules; recruitment process & policy;
power of PSC are fixed and mentioned though circular in newspapers
�� A 3 member Exam Committee is formed (one Member as
Chairman of the committee, Controller and one Director of PSC)
�� The committee is given responsibility to conduct the BCS exam
��
New Appointment Section of ME sends letter to the PSC Secretary to select
suitable persons for vacant posts. This letter covers recruitment policy,
procedures, and total vacant posts against cadres.
PSC Secretary sends it to the Chairman for necessary action.
Requisition sent by Ministries/Directorates/Divisions/Statutory Bodies to the
New Appointment Section of the Ministry of Establishment (ME)
Usually, a member
loyal to ruling party
is made Chairman to
the Committee of
BCS Examination.
Leakage of question paper; solving questions from
outside exam hall; changing marks; bringing failed
candidates in the merit list
Seat allocation is
done in groups with
bribe
Pro-ruling party examiners in question setting;
leakage of question paper; contract for good marks;
copying answers; submitting script without
appearing; changing exam scripts and marks
Pro-ruling party examiners as experts; lists of
candidates from ruling party; roll number to the viva
board members; harassing religious minority
examinees, extraordinary marks and changing marks
Merit List Manipulation in quota system; delaying publication
of results to get clients; pressure from ruling party
to recruit selected candidates; changing results and
merit list; increasing posts
Data on quota not published; mark-sheets not
provided; destruction of documents of examinees in
improper way
No
irregularity
is found
Preliminary Test
Written test
Viva voce
Stakeholders Key Activities Nature of Irregularities
and Corruption
Asking for bribe from the examinees
Asking for bribe by a section of concerned
medical personnel
36
Figure 10: Major Activities Regarding BCS Question Papers
Prepare Draft Question Paper
�� CEC selects at least 3 examiners for one subject;
�� CEC contacts with the examiners, and requests them to
send draft question in undersigned and sealed
envelop/letter. A guideline with necessary is also sent to the
examiners;
�� The CEC sits with the question makers and finalize question
papers and then types it by his/her trust staff;
�� Question papers are finalised under direct supervision of
CEC and Members of the exam committee give him support
in this regard as needed.
Preservation of Draft Question Papers
�� Question papers are preserved in the Triple Protected
Control Room in BPSC;
�� 3 keys of the lock are preserved to PSC Chairman, CEC
and Member of the exam committee;
�� CEC is mainly responsible to ensure the security of the
draft question papers until sending these to press.
Print Question Papers
�� CEC sends official letter to the Deputy Controller of BG Press for
taking safety measures of printing the question paper;
�� A director from BPSC (member of CEC) physically visits BG Press;
�� CEC sends question papers along with required number;
�� Draft prints are being checked by the assigned Director of the
Commission;
�� Required number of question papers is then printed with tight
security. The Deputy Controller of BG Press and a Director from
BPSC physically remain present during printing and packaging of
all question papers.
�� Assigned director brings all sealed packets, locks, trunks
to BPSC with strong security measures;
Preserve Printed Question Papers
�� The CEC is mainly responsible to ensure the safety of
the printed question papers. Accordingly, the CEC looks
over the security of papers;
�� The lock of the Double Protected Room opens in the
presence of the CEC and its Members’ just one or two
days before the exam;
�� Question papers are sent to the Regional Offices (RO)
with tight security. One director carries the sealed
packets/trunks with question papers to the ROs.
Question paper is sent to the centre located in Dhaka on
the exam day.
Major Activities Related to the Question Paper
Irregularities and
Corruptions
Usually, a member loyal to
the pro-ruling party is made
Chairman to the Committee
of BCS Examination.
Usually the pro-ruling
teachers or experts are
engaged in making the
question paper.
Negligence of the concerned
members of the exam
committee.
Intention of the concerned
members of BPSC Chairman
deliver question paper to the
ruling party leaders under
pressure from the ruling party.
37
4.3 Irregularities in BCS Examinations: Feedback from the Examinees
It was found that irregularities and corruptions of BCS examinations start at the very
beginning. Figure 8 clearly presents key irregularities at different stages of the process.
These types of irregularities were identified from the in-depth interviews of key
informants. Later the research team conducted a survey among BCS examinees (both
successful and unsuccessful) in order to verify the information given by the key
informants. In the following section a brief discussion of the findings has been
presented.75
It should be mentioned here that only a portion of the examinees get BCS cadre posts
through unfair means and corruption with unscrupulous dealing with a section of the PSC
personnel. However, the research team could not measure the portion of such
candidates. Nonetheless, the types of irregularities and corruption as discussed below
were identified by the team.
4.3.1 Reasons for Appearing at BCS Examinations
The respondents were asked why they appeared at the BCS examinations. The highest
number of them mentioned that they wanted a first class job (60.1%), will have high
status and social security (54.1%), a secured job (42.3%), will be able to serve the
people and country (29.8%), and financial solvency (20.4%).
4.3.2 Leakage of BCS Question Papers
The preparation, printing, preservation and distribution of BCS question paper include a
series of activities along with involvement of large number of personnel both in the PSC
and Bangladesh Government Press (BG Press) (Figure 9). The Chairman of the
Examination Committee of each BCS is fundamentally responsible for doing these with
utmost integrity and efficiency. During the printing of question papers, officers and
employees of BG Press are involved, but everyting is done under supervision and
monitoring of the Chair of the Examination Committee.
Allegations against the leakage of BCS question paper have become regular. Almost all
the daily newspapers covered news on the leakage of BCS question paper in recent
years.76 Among the respondents of the survey, 97.67% informed that the incident of
leakage of question papers is true. At the same time, denying such allegations77 by the
PSC authority is also a very common phenomenon. The PSC is yet to take effective
measures to track down persons involved in the leakage of question papers of different
examination it conducted. After a strong student movement, an inquiry committee78 was
formed for investigating the leakage of 24th BCS examination but the report of the
inquiry committee is not made public till today.
The findings of the opinion survey demonstrate that the corrupt employees (35%) and
officials (29%), Members and persons appointed on political consideration (28%),
question preserver/distributor/deliverer (24%), student leaders/activists of ruling party
(23%), the Chairman and few Members of the exam committee (20%) are mainly
75 For details on the survey see the section on ‘Methodology’ in Chapter 1.
76 The Independent, November 19, 2005; The Financial Express, November 19, 2005; The New
Nation, November 27, 2006; The News Today, November 20, 2005; The Daily Inqilab, November
20, 2005; The Ajker Kagoj, November 20, 2005; The Daily Jugantor, November 20, 2005; The
Daily Janakantha, November 20, 2005 and December 25, 2006; The Daily Songbad, November 20,
2005; The Daily Bhorer Kagoj, November 20, 2005; The Daily Star, August 11, 2003; The Daily
Bangla Bazar, November 20, 2006.
77 The Daily Ittefaq, November 19, 2005; The New Age, November 19, 2005; The Daily Star,
March 6, 2005.
78 The committee was formed with the then PSC Members Prof. Mohammed Mohabbat Khan as
Chairman of the inquiry committee, Professor Hasanuzzaman Chowdhury and Professor Md.
Mahfuzur Rahman.
38
involved in leakage of BCS question papers.79 Some of the key informants informed that
such leakage of question papers is done in exchange of Tk 1 to 5 lac at source.
4.3.3 Amount of bribes in BCS Exams
A summary of bribes usually taken from BCS examinees for different contracts is given
below:
Table 4.1: A Summary of Amount of Bribes in BCS Examinations
Nature of Contract Total Amount of Bribe80
Seating arrangement in groups Tk. 500 – 1,000 per examinee
Book Exam Hall Tk. 1,000 – 3,000 per examinee for one exam
Preliminary Test Question Paper Tk. 50 – 2,000 at examinee level
Tk. 1,00,000 – 5,00,000 at source81
Pass Preliminary Test Tk. 30,000 – 1,00,000
Change or replace exam scripts (i.e., to
write or solve questions after
completion of exam)
Tk. 3,000 – 5,000 for each script
Solve question papers from outside
exam hall
Tk. 1,000 – 2,000
Submission of script without attending
exam
Examinees under contract or examinees belong to
the list sent from the high command of ruling
party.
Know result before publication Tk. 500 – 1,000 per person
Contract for good marks in viva voice Tk. 3 – 5 lac
Contract for good cadre Administration/Police Cadre : Tk. 5-7 lac
Customs and Excise/Taxation: Tk. 8-10 lac*
Professional Cadre : Tk 2-3 lac
Unsuccessful candidates in the merit list Administration/Police Cadre : Tk.8-10 lac
Customs and Excise/Taxation: Tk. 10-12 lac *
Professional Cadre : Tk 3-5 lac
*Examinees under contract or examinees belong to the list sent from the high command of ruling
party.
4.3.4 Selling of BCS Question Papers
Making money by selling BCS question paper is a common phenomenon, as reported in
national dailies.82 However, the newspapers also mentioned that they did not find any
evidence of leakage of question paper although a syndicate made crores of taka by
selling fake question papers. But effective measure to stop such business is not yet been
undertaken by the PSC or concerned authority.
79 During consultation with PSC Members, a section of PSC Directors, officers, few former PSC
Members strongly opined (on condition of anonymity), “The Chairman of the examination
committee is solely responsible for all the activities of a BCS examination. The leak out of question
paper totally depends on his will. If PSC Chairman and the Chairman of the examination
committee take cautionary measures, the leak out of question is beyond the question.”
80 The amount of money depends on the negotiation capacity of the examinees.
81 Between Commission and coaching centre or persons involved in selling question.
82The Daily Prothom Alo, March 19, 2006; The Daily Dinkal, March 19, 2006; The Daily Ittefaq,
March 19, 2006; The Daily Jugantor, March 19, 2006; The Daily Janakantha, March 19, 2006.
39
Seat Allocation in Group
“I have faced 24th and 25th BCS Viva voce, but I
could not get job. I offered my friends to appear
in the 27th BCS exam together. They responded
positively and we managed a third class employee
of PSC to serve our purpose. We gave him 500
taka each. We got our seats together in the 27th
BCS preliminary examination. In the written test,
we also did the same thing. But now we are
thinking about the viva to get a channel to ensure
our cadres.”
“Our team consist of 18 examinees attended at
the 27th BCS Preliminary Test by managing our
seats together. We all are the student of the
department of Chemistry of Dhaka University.
One of our friends had a relative, working as a
4th class employee at PSC. Our seats were at
Dhaka Alia Madrasah in Bakshibajar where we
shared our answers jointly. It took taka 418 for
each Member of our group.”
4.3.5 Seat Allocation in Groups with Bribe
Irregularity in allocation of seats for the BCS examinees in groups exists. 91% of the
respondents informed that they have heard or seen about managing the seating
arrangement in groups. Such arrangement is done in exchange of bribes that varies
between Tk 500-1,000.
4.3.6 Delivering BCS Question Paper to the Examinees
Few of the key informants mentioned
that few of the target examinees are
sent directly to the exam hall just one
hour before the exam begins. Each
examinee has to pay Tk 50,000 to
1,00,000 for all question papers of a
BCS exam. A section of ruling party
student wing activists, few coaching
centres and a section of high officials
and employees are involve in such
business. 59% of the respondents of
the survey also mentioned similar
type of irregularity.
4.3.7 Ensuring Success in the
Preliminary Test
This is usually done immediately after
preliminary test is held. The
candidates who are able to manage
channel/connection in PSC with bribe
can avail this opportunity. This is
done by changing the score of the
preliminary test or solving the OMR Sheet once again by the examinee. The candidates
belong to the list of the names sent from the high command of ruling party need not pay
for this. However, the general candidates have to pay Tk 30,000-1,00,000 for passing in
the preliminary test. 42% of the respondents informed that they are familiar with this
kind of irregularity.
4.3.8 Copying in BCS Exams
This is done by writing exam scripts with the support of books, guides and notes openly,
copying from fellow examinees, collecting answers through mobile phone, giving proxy in
place of other examinee, and collecting answers from washrooms.83 This is done by
booking the rooms of exam centre either with bribe or political influence. Among the
respondents of the survey, 43.5% mentioned that they have either seen or heard of
attending BCS exams by booking the exam hall with bribe or political influence. This
usually costs between Tk 1,000 – 3,000 per candidate.
4.3.9 Solving Questions outside the Exam Hall
This sort of irregularity usually occurs in the written exams conducted by the PSC. With
the help of PSC employees, vigilants and persons responsible for booking and
arrangement of the exam hall are usually involved with this irregularity. During the time
of exam the particular examinee(s) send their question paper or part of the question
paper out side of the exam hall through the above mentioned persons. The questions are
solved by the persons who wait outside of the exam hall. It was also learnt that a section
of examinees usually hire person(s) to solve the questions. The hired person is given Tk
1,000-5,000 for each subject. The friends and relatives of the candidates also help the
examinees regarding the matter. However, the survey shows only 35% informants are
aware about the existence of this sort of practice.
83The Daily Shamokal, March 27, 2006; The Daily Janakantha, April 24, 2006.
40
4.3.10 Submitting Exam Script without Appearing at the Exam Hall
A candidate can submit exam script without attending the BCS exam. It was found that
although this requires bribing, the ruling party student wings, leaders, activists usually
do not have to bribe for this. According to some of the key informants, from the 20th BCS
exam this practice started to ensure the ruling party activists successful in BCS exams.
However, a section of PSC officers and employees took this opportunity and continued it
for financial gains.
Table 4.2: Irregularities and Corruptions in BCS: Respondents’ View
Irregularities and Corruptions Response
Yes No
Total
Percentage
Total
Informants
Interference of government in PSC 97.25 2.75 100.00 433*
Leakage of BCS question papers 98.2 1.8 100.00 433*
Seat allocation in groups with bribe 91.2 8.8 100.00 434
Delivering BCS question paper to the
examinees
59.0 41.0 100.00 434
Copying Answers in BCS Exam 43.5% 56.5% 100.00 434
Solving exam question papers outside
exam hall
35.0 65.0 100.00 434
Giving exam by booking exam hall room 43.5 56.5 100.00 434
Submitting exam script without
appearing at the exam hall
21.0 79.0 100.00 434
Ensuring passing in the preliminary test 42.2 57.8 100.00 434
Changing or replacing exam scripts 49.3 50.7 100.00 434
Changing marks 64.5 35.5 100.00 434
Failed Candidates in the merit list 24.5 75.5 100.00 434*
Giving list to the viva board members 90.1 9.9 100.00 434
Extraordinary marks in Viva Voce 78.5 21.5 100.00 433*
Calling the candidate to commission
after viva Voce
37.6 62.4 100.00 434
Contract for good cadre/whole BCS
examination
57.4 42.6 100.00 434
BCS job based on political connection
with Ruling Party
90.1 9.9 100.00 434
Leakage of BCS Results 66.8 33.2 100.00 434
Whether written exam scripts are
properly evaluated or not
35.7 64.3 100.00 414*
Re-evaluation of the test and exams
conducted by PSC
83.9 16.1 100.00 411*
Trust in PSC’s arranged examinations
and tests
51.58 48.42 100.00 434
* Missing response
41
4.3.11 Replacing Exam Scripts
Some of the key informants from the PSC informed that the written scripts (including
OMR Sheet of the Preliminary Test) can be changed in the exam day or immediately
before the written scripts are sent to the examiners. With the help of some of the top
level personnel, officers and employees of the PSC, the written scripts of the target
examinees are separated. Blank papers are then sent to the examinees from PSC to
solve the questions and submit again. Without changing the cover paper of the written
scripts, the re-written papers are replaced by papers of the scripts except the cover
page(s). 49% of the respondents are also aware of this irregularity. This usually costs Tk
3,000 – Tk 5,000 for each script.
Changing/Replacing exam script
‘X’ who was known to me got written scripts on Bangladesh and International
Affairs in the 18th BCS examination. His elder brother, a teacher of Rajshahi
University, was an examiner. He got BCS written scripts on
Bangladesh/International Affairs and called his younger brother (i.g., X) to search
his own script. “X” got his own script and wrote down some answers in the empty
pages of the script. It is believed that “X” was finally recommended by PSC in
Family Planning Cadre.
4.3.12 Changing Marks
Changing of exam marks (increasing or decreasing) happens as informed by key
informants. This is done for getting BCS cadre by ruling party leaders/activists of student
wings and candidates under contract. More than half of the informants (65%) informed
that changing marks is done in BCS exams.
Allegations have been made against few Members, Chairman of the Exam Committee,
PSC Chairman, a section of staff in the computer section, system analyst, and a
syndicate (i.e., persons with whom the candidates make contract for job) in PSC. The
marks of the candidates are increased to such extent so that the contracted examinees
get BCS cadres. The changing of marks is usually done immediately after the completion
of the initial draft of the merit list. From the high officials in PSC, it was also learnt that
this sort of irregularity is also done just before the result is published after getting a list
from the high command of the ruling party.
4.3.13 Leakage of BCS Results
Among the respondents, 66.8% informed that they know about leakage of BCS result in
exchange of bribe before it is published. BCS examinees can get their result (e.g.,
preliminary, written or final result) through managing a section of PSC officers and
employees of the computer and confidential section, even few Members involved in the
exam process with bribe.
4.3.14 Failed Candidates in the Merit List
Failed candidates are often brought in the merit list through corruption. This is usually
done after completion of the initial merit list of the examinees. Examinees included in the
list sent from the high command of the ruling party are the beneficiaries. Many of the
key informants from the PSC informed that the merit list is changed even just before the
final result is published. However, only 26.7% respondents are aware of this. The
national daily newspapers also published reports on this irregularity.84
84 The Daily Jugantor, April, 5, 2005.
42
Attitude towards Hindu BCS
examinees
An external (a professor of Dhaka
University) of BCS viva board, reputed for
his close connection with a leading
Islamist party in Bangladesh and for his
strong moral courage, decided to boycott
BCS viva board. He informed that one of
the female meritorious students of his
department got first class in both
graduate and post-graduate levels and
showed excellent performance in the viva
voce. When she came out from the viva
board, the Chairman of that board said,
“This candidate belongs to ‘H Group’ (i.e.,
Hindu). She will be settled in India
whenever she gets opportunity. The
country will be looser if we recommend
her for BCS job. So, we cannot give her
higher marks.”
This external was surprised and began to
bargain to give her at least eighty percent
in the viva voce as her performance was
the best amongst all the candidates in
that day. But the Chairman of that board
refused to do that. He tried his best to
give proper justice to that candidate but
failed, as another Member of the board
was in favour of the Chairman. Finally, he
came out of the viva board and decided to
keep himself away from any sort of
involvement with PSC in the near future.
Failed candidates in the merit list
“One of my friends who were an active activist of a pro-ruling party student wing appeared at the
25th BCS examination without well preparation. After completion of his viva voce, he informed
me that he did not do well in the viva voce. But finally, he was selected by PSC in BCS police
cadre. While discussing with him it was learnt that his name was sent to PSC along with the roll
number of ruling party activists/supporters from high command of ruling party.” - One of the
Respondents
The amount of money either for getting good cadre or to get a position in the merit list
(although he or she was unsuccessful in the exams) depends on the negotiation capacity
of the examinees. The candidates recommended by the high command of the ruling
party need not to pay bribe to PSC officials.
However, they often have to pay bribe to the
student leader(s) of the ruling party through
whom her/his name is recommended to
include in the list for BCS job.
4.3.15 Irregularities in Viva Voce
Allegations are often made against the
irregularities that occur in the viva voce of
the BCS exam process. A viva board consists
of three Members of the Commission
(including one Member of the Commission as
Chairman, one expert from the respective
subject/cadre and one
representative/bureaucrat from the
government. Usually a joint secretary level
or higher personnel is sent from the Ministry
of Establishment as Government
representative to the Commission for viva
board. Until the 26th BCS examination, a
total of 200 marks (out of total 1000) were
allocated for the viva voce. From the 27th
BCS, a total of 100 marks have been
allocated. No specific guideline is followed for
the viva voce.
In the past, more than 90% marks were
given to a section of examinees (especially
the ruling party candidates or the candidates
under contract with the PSC Members).
However, now it has become a very common
phenomenon. It is pertinent to note that no
transparent guideline or manual has been followed for conducting the viva voce. From
the survey it was observed that candidates are asked about their respective subject
studied at graduate or post-graduate level (70%), rationales of preferred cadre (31%),
general knowledge (31%) and personal issues (26%).85
Major allegations of irregularity in the viva boars include:
�� Identification of Candidates: The Chairman of the exam committee and PSC
Chairman sit together to distribute the target candidates in different viva boards
through a slips (including their roll number). Roll number of the listed candidates is
delivered to the Chairman/Member of the viva boards.
85 See Annex 17 for the types of questions asked in the BCS viva board.
43
�� Instruction to Externals: The externals of the boards are also given instruction by
the Chairman of the viva boards to avoid uncomfortable situation to the listed
candidates.
�� Discrimination in Questions: The listed candidates are usually asked easy
questions while other candidates are asked critical questions. Viva voce of the target
candidates’ end in a short time than that of the general candidates.
�� Rude Behaviour of Board Members: The findings demonstrate that about 31% of
the respondents received non-cooperation and rude behaviour from the board
members.
�� Discrimination against Non-Muslim Candidates: In the viva boards in the recent
BCS exams non-Muslim candidates faced uncomfortable questions as well as rude
behaviour from the board members.86
�� Extra-ordinary Marks87: Extraordinary marks vary between 80-90% of the
allocated marks. Candidates can confirm extraordinary marks in the viva voce with
Tk 50,000 to Tk 5,00,000. 79% of the respondents also informed about this.
�� Calling Candidates to PSC after Viva Voce: The targeted candidates are called
over mobile phone to meet with a certain Member at PSC in a certain time. The
candidates are also asked to wait and meet with the Member in a specific time on the
day of BCS viva of the target candidates. Upon the meeting the candidate is asked to
pay a certain amount of money in order to confirm the job. The drivers, personnel
assistants/officers/agents help the concerned Member(s) in this regard. About 27%
of the respondents informed that they know about this kind of incidents. Usually the
targeted candidates are called in immediately after the completion of the viva voce.
Calling BCS Examinees after Viva Voce
‘X’, a candidate of the 25th BCS examination is a meritorious student. Immediately after
completion of viva voce, the Chairman of his viva board sent his Personal Assistant to ‘X’,
asking to meet him in his office at 2.00 p.m. on the same day. Accordingly, ‘X’ met the
Member who demanded Tk 3 lac offering him to ensure BCS job. ‘X’ refused to go for a
contract with the Member, as he had full confidence of getting job in the 25th BCS. But
after the publication of the result, ‘X’ became surprised and frustrated noticing that his roll
number was not in the result sheet.
4.3.16 Contract for Whole BCS Exam
Another trend for securing a BCS cadre job is through a package contract. More than half
of the respondents (57.8%) are informed about such contract. Allegations have been
made against a few Members for their involvement in making contract with a part of the
BCS examinees. It is interesting to note that 67% of the successful candidates among
the respondents admitted about such irregularity. Such package costs from Tk two lac to
10 lac, depending on the type of cadre, reference and negotiation capacity of the
candidate. It was learnt that a segment of personnel from all level at the PSC, and
leaders and activists of the ruling party through the party high command are integral
part of such package. The term ‘Good Cadre’ is often used mainly for the BCS cadres
such as administration, police, foreign service, taxation, and customs and excise. These
cadres are considered by common people as the most prestigious and powerful cadres in
the civil service.88
86 A Member who resigned from PSC in June 2005 was known for his preference for Muslim
candidates and negligence of non-Muslim candidates. It is widely known that this Member used to
ask questions from the Holy Quran and Hadith to the Muslim candidates. Those who failed to give
satisfactory answers had to face misbehaviour from this Member.
87 The Daily Shamokal, January 28, 2007.
88 The Daily Shamokal, January 28, 2007.
44
Contract to ensure BCS job
‘A’ was serious to become a BCS cadre. In the 25th BCS, he met a Member of PSC, who
demanded Tk 5 lac to ensure his job. ‘A’ managed his father to collect the bribe by selling
cultivable land. The Member assured him while taking the bribe. But when the final result
was published, ‘A’ did not find his roll number in the merit list. After hearing this news, his
father had a cardiac arrest and was hospitalised. ‘A’ met the Member once again and
asked about the issue. The Member told him that as there were few candidates from the
ruling party high command, he was unable to manage a cadre for him. He then assured
him a cadre in the next BCS exam. However, unfortunately the age of ‘A’ for getting
government job was already exceeded by that time.
4.3.17 BCS job based on Political Connection with Ruling Party
This sort of irregularity is widely discussed phenomenon since the beginning of
operations of PSC in Bangladesh. The recruitment of pro-ruling party supporters, student
wing leaders and relatives of ruling party leaders is nothing new in Bangladesh. This sort
of practice has become a matter of open secret from the 20th BCS and onwards.89 The
Chairman and Members of the Commission can not ignore or overlook the request of the
high command of the ruling party, as all of them have been appointed in the Commission
purely on political patronage.90 Almost all the informants (90%) informed that they are
aware about such instances where a list of candidates is sent to the Members of the viva
board.
BCS Job based on political patronage
‘Y’ and his friend appeared at the 25th BCS examination. After completion of
written exams, the fiend of ‘Y’ could not think of getting BCS job. But, finally she
was recommended for BCS Administration on political consideration. She was a
relative of an influential Member of the Parliament.
‘Z’, Assistant General Secretary of a student wing of a political party, passed BCS
in Civil Engineering after several efforts. He was placed 3rd position in the final
merit list of the 25th BCS and got Foreign Affairs cadre. After hearing this news,
the fellow residents of his dormitory and students of the university were
astonished as well as frustrated, as his name was included in the list sent from the
high command of the ruling party.
4.3.18 BCS Job with Fake Certificates
The issue of getting BCS jobs by submitting certificates of dependants of freedom
fighters generated a lot of criticism and controversies in the 20th BCS exam.91 However,
this trend is still continuing.
The White Paper published by the Prime Minister’s Office mentioned that a total of nine
BCS Examinees did not identify themselves as children of freedom fighter in the BCS
Application Form. However, later they submitted certificates claiming to be freedom
fighters’ children. The Commission recommended all of them for administration (5),
89 The Daily Star, September 30, 2005. Usually, the Office Secretary of the student wing of the
ruling party of the Universities collect or receive photocopies of the admit cards/roll number of the
candidates. He then makes a preliminary list and gives it to the President of University unit. The
President then sends the list to the President and General Secretary of the central unit of the
student’s wing of the ruling party. The top two leaders of this central unit again verify the names
in the list. After verifying, the list is sent to the high command or the ruling party office for
recommendation. The ruling party high command receives similar kinds of lists from other
protagonist professional bodies and party leaders. The list is then finalised and sent either to the
PSC Chairman directly or to a Member of the Commission.
90 The Daily Shamokal, April 16, 2005; The Daily Amer Desh, June 3, 2006; The Daily Janakantha,
June 6, 2006; The Daily Star, September 22 & 30, 2005, The Bangladesh Observer, March 3,
2005; The Daily Shamokal, January 28, 2007.
91 The Daily Manob Jamin, May 8, 2002.
45
police (2), medical (1), and family planning (1) cadres in the 20th BCS exam.92 A case
was filed against a former Chairman of the Commission for his alleged involvement
regarding the above-mentioned irregularity.
4.3.19 Manipulations in Quota System
PSC is supposed to follow the existing quota policy93 during selection of competent
candidates through BCS examinations. However, the process the PSC follows in this
regard is not transparent. The PSC and the Ministry of Establishment do not mention in
the merit list or Gazette Notifications how many candidates are selected under the
quota. Further, the BCS examinees are barred from making challenges. Thus, in absence
of transparency within the quota distribution, there are opportunities for irregularities.
Such irregularities can be identified by verifying the quota of all cadres recommended by
the PSC between the 20th to 26th BCS exams.
4.3.20 Money-making Business by PSC Staff
It has been observed that a section of PSC officers and employees collect money from
the examinees by giving them assurance of giving jobs.94 Such irregularity has been
observed during the 20th-27th BCS exams. The amount of money varies according to the
importance of the cadre. For example, administration and police cadre require Tk 5-7 lac
and Tk 2-3 lac for technical or educational cadres. Those who can manage connections in
the PSC can avail this opportunity. One PSC staff, usually make contract during the
ongoing process of an examination conducted by the PSC. Usually the total amount of
money is returned to the concerned candidate for whom the job cannot be confirmed.
However, candidates without strong political connection or moral courage never get back
the total amount. A section of PSC staff and officers intentionally make delay of functions
and activities related to BCS examination in order to manage clients. Agents are used to
receive bribes from such clients.95
4.3.21 Syndicate(s) in PSC
The staff of the PSC is not transferred to other ministries or offices of the government.
Due to the absence of the provision of transfer, a number of syndicates or groups have
emerged. Such groups are not affected by the changes in the government. These
syndicates are involved in different kinds of irregularities as mentioned previously.
According to some of the key informants, these groups are much organised. They are so
strong that they can defy any official step against their activities. They also informed
that the employees involved in these kinds of activities also work for the interest of the
ruling party at all times.
4.3.22 Unpublished Inquiry Reports
Inquiry reports prepared by the concerned inquiry committees do not see the light of the
day. The inquiry report on the leakage of question paper of the 24th BCS exam has not
been made public till today. The research team met the Chairman, Secretary and
Members of the Commission with the aim to have a look at the report. However, all of
them refused to show the same.96
92 Irregularities in Selection of BCS Candidates in 20th BCS Exam, Part III, p.42, White Paper on
Misuse of Power, Irregularities and Corruptions during Awami League’s Rule (1996-2001), Prime
Minister’s Office, April, 2002.
93 Merit 45%, freedom fighters 30%, district 10%, women 10%, and tribal 5%.
94 The Daily Shamokal, January 28, 2007; The Daily Janakantha, October 17, 2006.
95 The Daily Shamokal, January 28, 2007. At least two agents of two Members of the Commission
was identified, who have been operating since the 24th BCS exams. They work as middlemen
between Members and job seekers who seek opportunity to get job with bribe. Close relatives of
the concerned Members are deployed to take bribe from the job seekers.
96 Some of the key informants including Members of the inquiry committee, and Directors informed
that the report was vanished as involvement of high officials came out through the investigation.
46
4.3.23 Destruction of Documents of Examinees in Improper way
Destruction of documents without following the rules97 is a serious matter of concern.
Since the 24th BCS the documents of unsuccessful candidates have been destroyed/burnt
immediately after the result is published. PSC high officials informed that official rules for
destruction of documents are not properly maintained. They also suggested that by
investigating the following documents of unsuccessful along with the successful
candidates, a great deal of irregularities could be brought out:
1. Application form (PSC Form No. I).
2. Application form (PSC Form No. II).
3. Submitted documents by the examinees along with the application.
4. Original sheet of preliminary test completed by the examinee(s).
5. Result sheet of Preliminary Test.
6. Mark sheet of written exam.
7. Scripts of written exam.
8. Tabulation sheet of preliminary and written exams.
9. Viva result sheet.
10. Final result sheet.
4.4 Credibility of PSC: From Service Recipients’ Point of View
The roles of PSC have been a matter of question since the beginning of its operations in
1972.98 The findings of the survey also demonstrate a very poor level of trust over PSC –
only 1.85% respondents expressed their full trust over the role of PSC. 48.42% of the
respondents believe that the evaluation of their exam was not done properly, and they
are not satisfied with the process. The respondents identified the following as major
reasons for distrust on the evaluation by the PSC:
�� Marks of the examination is not published.
�� Assessment done by in-experienced/ less qualified competent examiners.
�� Assessment of a huge number of scripts by one examiner.
�� Restriction of right to re-examination.
�� Absence of specific standard/ instruction for assessment of scripts.
�� Selection of BCS examinees on political consideration.
�� Change marks (increasing or decreasing marks).
�� Give roll number of certain examinees to the examiners while delivering scripts
to the examiners.
�� Involve non-experts in evaluating scripts.
�� Nepotism in distributing script/ political biasness during assessment.
�� Political influence/ interest during assessment.
�� Corruption of few Members, PSC officers and employees.
�� Absence of accountability of concerned persons.
A major portion of them (one-third) also expressed that they have no trust over the
Chairman and Members of the PSC. They identified that they become Members by
showing loyalty on ruling party, corrupt persons are appointed as Chairman and
Members, there are tendencies to deny any claims without investigation, many of them
take bribes, there have been leakage of question papers over the years, they make
contract with the examinees by calling them to the PSC, competent candidates do not
get jobs, few members show communal attitudes, few Members actively participate in
political programmes/activities, they have failed in publishing investigation reports, there
is no transparency in the recruitment process, and there is a tendency to reject
complaints without investigation.
97 Government of Bangladesh, Weeding and Destruction of Records Secretariat Instructions, 1976.
For the detail procedure, see Annex 18 on weeding and destruction of documents (in Bangla).
98 The Daily Janakantha, November 22, 2005; The New Age, November 19, 2005; The Daily
Shamokal, January 28, 2007; The Daily Bhorer Kagoj, January 15, 2007.
47
Chapter 5
Diagnosis of the Limitations of the PSC
This chapter provides a diagnosis of the major limitations of the PSC. As an important
institution under the NIS, the PSC should follow the basic principles of a public service
managing authority. The diagnosis of the limitations of the PSC is primarily focused
around the three indicators as mentioned in the conceptual framework described in the
first chapter. According to the indicators, the PSC should be detached from the political
government, and the recruitment to service should be by open competition based on
ideals of a non-partisan career civil service.
5.1 Constitutional and Legal Limitations
The following constitutional and legal limitations have been identified that paved the way
towards irregularities and corruption in the PSC.
5.1.1 Insufficient Qualification and Eligibility Criteria
It is observed that the existing qualification and eligibility criteria are not sufficient for
selecting competent persons as Chairmen and Members.99
5.1.2 Absence of a Transparent Selection Procedure
Since 1972, the whole process of selection of Chairman and Members has shown an
absolute lack of transparency (Ali, 2002:188). Under the existing Constitutional
mandate100, the appointment of Chairman and Members are made by the President of
the Republic in accordance with advice from the Prime Minister. Accordingly, the
appointments for these Constitutional positions completely depend on the will of the
Chief Executive of the country. The common people are kept in the dark about how a
person is selected as Chairman or Member of the Commission.
It is observed that the existing mandates have given lots of scopes for appointment of
Chairman and Members on political consideration. In Bangladesh, both the Prime
Minister and the President are elected by the majority of the MPs. Both the Chief
Executive and Head of the State come from the ruling party or alliance. Due to lack of
specific selection procedure and qualification criteria, is observed that protagonist
bureaucrats (civil and military) and university teachers having close connection, loyalty
or trust of influential ministers, Prime Minister’s Office, influential leaders of pro-ruling
party professional bodies (e.g. University teachers’ associations, student wings) have
become Chairmen and Members of the Commission since 1972.101
Among those who were appointed as Members since 1996, 74% had formal political
positions in their respective associations, or relatives of leaders of the ruling
party/alliance (Figure 10), while the rest are known to have high political connections
which attributed to their becoming Members. It is no secret that some Chairmen and
Members of PSC over the years have been appointed on political grounds.102 PSC has
also become a haven for persons in the service of Republic who are retired or have gone
on Leave Preparatory to Retirement (LPR).103
99 The Constitution of Bangladesh, Article 138 (1).
100 Ibid.
101 The Daily Amader Shamoy, January 24, 2007.
102 Habib Zaharullah and Mohammad Mohabbat Khan, 2005:104-105.
103 AMM Shawkat Ali, 2002:188.
48
51.85%
25.93%
14.81%
7.41%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
Supporters of ruling
party
Civil servant Office
Bearers/Leaders of
Pro-ruling party
bodies
Relatives of the
ruling party
family/leaders
Background of PSC Members (1996-2006), Total Members 27
Percentage
Figure 11: Background of PSC Members (1996-2006)
5.1.3 Absence of Accountability Measures for Chairman and Members
Any specific legal provision or guidelines for ensuring the accountability of Chairman and
Members do not exist. Few of the key informants including some Members opined such
absence of accountability measures may encourage a section of Members along with the
Chairman to be involved in unconstitutional activities and irregularities such as
involvement in political campaign.
5.1.4 Lower Rank of the Chairman and Members
The Chairman and Members of the PSC hold the lowest status among the constitutional
bodies of Bangladesh.104 The rank of the Members is lower than that of the additional
secretaries to the government. It is identified that the undermined positions of PSC
Chairman and Members in the Warrant of Precedence have created opportunity for
interference by the bureaucracy upon the PSC in discharging its functions as mandated
by the Constitution.
5.1.5 Weak Mechanism for Removal or Termination
Through the existing provisions, it is difficult to remove or terminate a corrupt Chairman
or Member. Although there have been allegations against the PSC Chairman and some of
the Members, the President of the Republic has not taken any initiative to investigate the
allegations and take disciplinary action.105
5.1.6 Absence of Operations Principles
The PSC does not have any operations principles, vision and mission of the Commission.
This dearth has been considered as opportunities by the consecutive governments to
sway from the core principles of the public service.
5.1.7 Lack of Access to Information
The right to access to information is considered an integral part of freedom of expression
(or ‘oxygen of democracy106) and fundamental human rights107 which lays the foundation
104 Warrant of Precedence of Bangladesh, 1986 (revised in 2003).
105 The Chairman and other Members of such a Commission shall be removed from office except in
like manner and on he like grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court. (Source: Article 139. (2),
Source: The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 2000).
106 Article 19, The Public’s Right to Know: Principles of Freedom of Information Legislation
(London: Article 19, International Standards Series, June 1999), 1.
49
of good governance108, and builds a relationship of trust with the pubic.109 The Council of
Europe (COE), the Organisation of American States (OAS) and the African Nations110,
and more than sixty countries111 (including India, Nepal and Pakistan) have made
provisions for freedom of information for all.
However, it is observed that access to information for the service-recipients of the PSC is
almost absent.112 The existing Official Secrets Act has not only restricts the freedom of
information to the service recipients of the PSC, but also served as a safeguard for
protecting the persons involved in irregularities and corruption.
Laws Hindering the Right to Access to Information
Evidence Act, 1872, Section 123
….no one is permitted to give evidence derived form unpublished official records relating to
‘Affairs of State’, except with the permission of the Departmental head who may either
grant or withhold the permission.
Official Secrets Act, 1923, Section 5
… if any person possessing any document or information which has been entrusted to him
in confidence by any government official, or which he has obtained as an official, (a)
wilfully communicates it to any unauthorised persons; (b) uses it for the benefit of foreign
power, (c) retains it in breach of duty, (d) fails to take reasonable care so as to endanger
its safety, he shall be guilty of an offence.
Rules of Business, 1975, Section 26(1)
… Government servants to communicate information, acquired directly or indirectly form
official documents or relating to official matter, to the press, to non-officials or even
officials belonging to other government officers.
The Government Servants (Conduct) Rules, 1979, Section 19
.. a government servant shall not disclose the contents of any official document or
communicate any information of official nature, directly or indirectly to government
servants of other ministries, or departments or to non-official persons or to the press.
5.1.8 Denial of Right to Justice
Under the existing provisions no examinee can challenge any decision related to BCS or
any other exam/test conducted by the PSC. The decision(s) taken by the PSC regarding
examinations will be considered as absolute. No request will be considered for reevaluation
of answer sheets/scripts.113 The service-recipients of the PSC and a section of
its high officials hold the view that existing restrictions on re-evaluation or reexamination
of results declared by PSC has, in fact, created a great deal of opportunities
for irregularities.
107 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 19. Every one has the right to freedom of
opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to
seek receive and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of all frontiers.
108 World Bank (July 1996), Government That Works, Reforming the Public Sector, The University
Press Limited, Dhaka, p 65.
109 XIX Articles 19, Global Campaign for Free Expression, UK, London, April 2005, p. 10.
110 Cited in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN General Assembly Resolution 217A
(III), adopted 10 December 1948; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, UN General
Assembly Resolution 2200 A (XXI), adopted December 16, 1966, in force March 23, 1976;
American Convention on Human Rights, adopted November 1969 in force July 18, 1978; European
Convention on Human Rights, Adopted November 4, 1950, in force September 3, 1953; African
Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted June 26, 1981, in force October 21, 1986.
111 Concept Paper on International Right to Know Day, Transparency International Bangladesh,
Sep. 28, 2006.
112 See Annex 19 for details on the issues the service-recipients of the PSC want to know about.
113 Circular on 27th BCS Examination (No. BPSC-CE./Section/31/2005/311, 17/07/2005).
50
5.2 Dependence on the Government
The relationship between PSC and the government has been a controversial issue since
the establishment of the first PSC in British India on 1 October 1926 (Ahmed,
1990:140). However, according to the functions of the PSC, the following issues reflect
PSC’s dependence upon the government:
�� PSC is a division under the Ministry of Establishment. No legal provision has yet been
made to establish PSC as a separate entity, which will be accountable to the National
Parliament and President simultaneously;
�� PSC is a Constitutional body to give support to the central public personnel organ of
the government;
�� It gives only recommendations on appointment, disciplinary, promotion, transfer
cases related to the 1st class gazetted and non-gazetted civil servants of the republic;
�� PSC gives recommendations to the Ministry of Establishment on service-related
issues only after request from the ministry; and
�� PSC has no role in implementing its recommendations sent to the ministry on
service-related matters.
Table 5.1: An Overview of the Relationship between BPSC and
the Ministry of Establishment
Ministry of Establishment (ME) BPSC
�� The central public personnel administration
body/agency of the government.
�� Give support to the central public personnel
organ of the government.
�� Has executive power in the civil service. �� Has advisory and quasi-judicial power only.
�� Works as per instruction of the government. �� Can work independently if the Commission
desires.
�� Regulate and manage all cadres of the services
of the republic. Can recruit directly at all levels
of the government accept the 1st class gazetted
and non-gazetted posts/services.
�� Major functions are to recommend 1st
gazetted and non-gazetted civil servants for
the services of the republic.
�� Implement recommendations as provided by
BPSC, but ME may not fully or partially
implement PSC’s advice. In such cases, ME has
to give explanation to the BPSC.
�� Give only recommendation on disciplinary,
promotion, transfer cases related to the 1st
class gazetted and non-gazetted civil
servants.
�� Works under rules and regulations/instructions
made by government.
�� The Commission works as per Constitutional
and legal mandates.
�� Only civil servants get appointment at Ministry
of Establishment.
�� Consists of both civil and non-civil servants.
�� An essential part of the ruling government. �� Give supports to Ministry of Establishment.
�� Has to inform BPSC as to what action it has
taken on any recommendation given by the
latter in relation to a service matter.114
�� BPSC gives recommendations to the ME on
service related issues only after request from
Ministry of Establishment.
�� Helps BPSC in discharging its functions
effectively through the issuance of certain
general instructions to all ministries/divisions,
stipulating that they should always seek advice
from and accept the recommendations of
BPSC.115
�� Has no role in implementing its
recommendations sent to the Ministry of
Establishment on service related matters.
�� A hierarchical central personnel agency which
regulates the all levels of government services
run by the government.
�� Collegiate type of public service management
organ or body for management of civil
service which is also not fully autonomous.
114 Ahmed, 1990:141
115 Ibid, p. 141.
51
5.2.1 Financial Dependence
The Commission has no freedom in its budgetary and financial matters. All financial
issues relating to its revenue expenditure including capital expenditure for any
development scheme is controlled by the Ministry of Establishment. All income of the
PSC (e.g., application fees and examination charges realised from the examinees) goes
to the government treasury. Moreover, the PSC depends on the Ministry of
Establishment for sanctioning the house rent, travelling allowances and medical benefits
for its Chairman, Members and staff. In fact, by controlling the financial and
administrative matters of PSC, the independence of commission, is thereby denied.
5.3 Lack of Accountability Measures
5.3.1 Little Role played by the Parliament
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on the Ministry of Establishment (PSCME) under
no legal provision can on the specific role and functions of. Due to this gap, the PSCME
cannot take any effective initiative to combat irregularities in the PSC.
Even due to sheer majority, attempts by some of the MPs to establish accountability for
Chairman and Members of the Commission failed. On the proposed bill titled ‘Members of
the Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Terms and Conditions of Service)
(Amendment) Bill, 2006’ two MPs placed a ‘Note of Dissent’. In the note of dissent, the
concerned MPs pointed out the allegation of corruption and irregularities practiced by the
Chairman and Members of the PSC. However, it was ignored and finally passed in the
parliament.
5.3.2 Controversial Role of Few Members and Chairmen
In recent years, PSC Chairmen and Members have faced a lot of criticism due to their
controversial activities. A Member of the PSC took part in electoral campaign in 2006, as
he sought nomination from the four-party alliance.116 Another member expressed his
gratefulness to the Prime Minister and the Mayor of a city corporation at a public meeting
in March 2006.
The Bureau of Anti-Corruption (now Anti-corruption Commission) filed cases against a
former Chairman of the PSC for alleged involvement in appointing persons in
government service under freedom fighters quota through fake documents.117 The
concerned person, however, claimed that the legal cases filed against him are false,
baseless and with the intention to harass him publicly.118
5.3.3 Politicised Confidential Section
Pro-ruling party staff is usually transferred to the Confidential Section immediately after
taking over by a new government. This is done to ensure partisan recruitments without
facing any trouble.
5.4 Institutional Limitations
A number of institutional limitations have played significant roles for the PSC in its poor
performance.
5.4.1 Rented Office for the Commission
Over the last 35 years since independence, the PSC does not have its own building till
today.
5.4.2 Inadequate Human Resource
116 The Daily Bhorer Kagoj, 27 January, 2006; The Daily Sangbad, 27 January, 2006; The Daily
Korotoya, June 5, 2006; The Daily Shamokal, January 28, 2007.
117 The Daily Star, May 15, 2002; The Independent, May 15, 2002; The Daily Inquilab, May 15,
2002; The Daily Janakantha, May 16, 2002; The Financial Express May 15, 2002.
118 The Bhorer Kagoj, May 9, 2002.
52
The Commission suffers from inadequate human resources. It has repeatedly
recommended for creating the post of Deputy Director for Zonal Offices in its annual
reports. However, the government has not taken any measure regarding the issue.119 A
total of 51 positions (15 percent of required posts/positions) are vacant as mentioned in
the Commission’s Annual Report, 2005. Moreover, although the number of PSC Members
was increased from 6 to 11, the number of required officers and employees were not
increased accordingly due to lack of allocation of fund from the concerned ministries. The
shortage of manpower in PSC is seen as one of the fundamental problems for carrying its
mandated functions.
5.4.3 Recruitment, Promotion & Transfer of Internal Staff on Political
Consideration
The first recruitment rules for recruitment of officers and employees in PSC were made
in April 22, 1982.120 It is observed that since 1991, the recruitment of PSC staff
(especially the 1st & 2nd class officers) has been done on political consideration.
During the same period officers and employees known as supporters of the ruling party
have been transferred to important sections like BCS recruitment and confidential
section, and given promotions. Officers considered as barriers/threats against the
interests of the ruling party have been made Officers on Special Duty (OSD) and sent
back to the Ministry of Establishment.
5.4.4 Limited Career of the PSC Officials
The highest level of position for the 1st class officers of the PSC Secretariat is limited up
to the Controller of the Commission.121 Joint Secretaries (or above) of the Government
has been given appointment as Secretary of the Commission through transfer or
deputation since 1972, for which position the PSC staff are not considered.
5.4.5 Syndicates in PSC
The non-transferable nature of the job, the officers and employees of the PSC
Secretariat has led to the emergence of syndicates in the PSC. These syndicates are so
strong that even the Chairman cannot take any action against these groups.
5.4.6 No Capacity-building Programme for the PSC Staff
There is no training programme for improving the capacity of the Commission’s officers
and employees. It is learnt that the lack of capacity building programme in PSC is to
some extent responsible for delaying the result of various exams.
5.4.7 Lack of Modern Technology and Documentation
The Commission seriously lacks modern technical support. It has no website of its own.
Major activities of the administration, accounting and library sections are done manually.
A network based management information system is absent in the PSC. There is also
absence of a computer system to formulate recruitment rules and/or policy, promotion of
officers and employees, and other regular tasks. There is also a serious lack of proper
documentation.
5.4.8 Research Section
The Research Section has not yet conducted any research on the trend of the
representation of the population, in terms of religion, ethnicity and sex of the
recommended BCS posts. No substantial study on problems/limitations of the ongoing
operations of the PSC has been carried out since its establishment in 1972.
119 BPSC Annual Report, 2005, p. 11.
120 Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Officers and Employees) Recruitment Rules,
Government of Bangladesh, Gazette No. SRO 125-L/82/ED/Rectt/IE-1/79 PSC, April 22, 1982.
121 BPSC Officers and Employees Recruitment Rules, SRO 125-L/82/ED/1E-1/79 PSC, Government
of Bangladesh, April 22, 1982, p. 4.
53
5.4.9 Library
The library of the PSC is inaccessible for the common people. It is not modernised and
the PSC seems to have no plan to turn it into a modern library.
5.4.10 No Printing Press for the PSC
Printing press is required to print question papers every year for various competitive
tests and exams conducted by the PSC. Still it has to depend on the BG Press to print all
these. However, there are risks of leakage of question papers in printing these outside
BG Press. The PSC requested the government for allocation of budget for establishment
of its own printing press. But the PSC has not received any positive response regarding
this matter till today.122
5.4.11 Inadequate Office Equipments
The number of photocopier, scanner, fax machine, selves/racks, space for storage of the
exam scripts and documents of the examinees are inadequate. Thousands of applications
of the examinees along with the documents in various exams conducted by the PSC are
kept in open space inside the PSC building. These very often get damaged by rain and
insects, or get lost due to improper filing and unsafe preservation.
5.5 Irregularities in BCS Examinations
5.5.1 Recruitment System under the BCS Examination Process
The examination system for gazetted and non-gazetted officers is archaic and outdated
lacking the scope of proper assessment of the competency of the candidates. Because of
lack of transparent assessment criteria for examinations, there is scope of irregularities
and corruption in the recruitment process. There have been blatant examples of partisan
recruitments in important cadres like administration and police.
5.5.2 Irregularities in BCS Examinations
The following irregularities have been identified in the BCS examinations. Such
irregularities have contributed to the erosion of trust among the candidates as well as
the common people on the fairness of the recruitment by the PSC.
�� The Leakage of question paper has been happening on regular basis since the 24th
BCS examination.
�� With financial contract or on political consideration irregularities have been done
during all phases of BCS examinations. Such irregularities include planned seating
arrangement, submission of examination scripts without appearing at the exam hall,
change of exam scripts on payment, change of the merit list and results, new
candidates added on payment and on political consideration, and high marks given
arbitrarily in Viva Voce to the candidates under contract or to political cadres and
activists.
�� Extortion by a section of the PSC staff is the reflection of the emergence of
syndicates within the PSC. This also includes calling candidates by PSC Members at
the commission for negotiation.
�� Appointment of Chairman, Members and transfer on deputation based on political
consideration result in heavy influence by the ruling party in the selection process
through BCS and other similar examinations. The primary aim of such influence is to
infiltrate the civil service with protagonists of the ruling party/coalition, which, in
future will act as a supporting group. This is evident in pressures to recruit the
persons belonging to the list sent from the high command of the ruling party. This
also includes allowance of selection with fake certificate under different quota since
the 20th BCS examination, and non-publication of data on the specific quota of the
recommended cadres.
122 BPSC Annual Report, 2005, p. 10.
54
�� Non-publication of mark-sheets and destruction of documents of BCS examination
without maintaining proper procedures is a reflection of the absence of transparency
in the process of recruitment through BCS examinations. This non-transparency is
further enhanced by the provision barring candidates from challenging the PSC
throughout the process.
55
Chapter 6
Conclusion and Recommendations
A number of limitations in the constitutional and legal mandates and procedures of the
operations of PSC have contributed to opportunities for irregularities and corruptions in
the PSC. Absence of effective accountability at all levels and transparency in the
operations of the PSC have further created scope of irregularities in the PSC. The PSC
has been considerably used as a body for a partisan appointment of Chairman and
Members, and for recruitment pro-ruling party activists and supporters for the civil
services since 1972. The credibility of PSC was never beyond questions and doubts.
No legal mandate or watchdog body can ensure the end of irregularities and corruptions
from any pubic service delivery institution unless there is sincere political will from the
government. On the other hand, competent persons with strong moral courage,
integrity, relevant experience and professional commitment can run a constitutional body
like the PSC.
Recommendations
The following recommendations have been made with regard to ensuring good
governance within the PSC.
1. Re-Constitution of the Commission and Punishment of the Corrupt
6. The PSC should be reconstituted immediately composed of a Chairperson and
Members with impeccable professional excellence and undisputed integrity,
efficiency and credibility.
7. A Special Committee should be formed to accomplish the above and recommend
measures for reforming the Commission with special emphasis on neutrality,
independence and effectiveness of the Commission.
8. The Anti-corruption Commission should be called upon to investigate into all sorts
of irregularities and corruptions held in PSC at all levels including former and
present Chairman, Members, officers and employees and their dependents.
9. The Chairperson, Members and staff of Commission must reveal their income,
assets and liabilities and those of their immediate family members and regularly
update the same.
10. Investigations should include all recruitments especially the 20-27th BCS exams
conducted by PSC during the last 15 years.
2. Independence and Accountability of the PSC
3. The PSC must be granted full independence in terms of administrative and financial
control befitting the challenge facing it.
4. The Commission must have internal self-regulatory and transparency mechanism in
place, while it must be externally reportable to the Parliament through Standing
Committee on Public Service.
3. Qualification and Eligibility Criteria for Chairman and Members
The Chairman and Members of the Commission must be:
5. Persons of high integrity, strong moral courage, personality and commitment.
6. Must have knowledge and experiences on public administration.
7. Prepared to disassociate from any other position of financial benefit.
8. Must have sound health and proven non-communal attitude.
56
4. Selection of Chairman and Members
The present practice under which the Chief Executive is the ultimate appointing
authority of the Chairman and Members of the Commission must be replaced by a
creating a Search Committee consisting of the Chief Executive, Chief Justice, Leader
of the Opposition in the Parliament, Eminent retired Civil Servant of impeccable
record and credibility, non-partisan and professionally acclaimed educationist and
civil society member and a media person with similar credibility. Selection process
may be as followers:
o Step I: Make a list of the competent persons for appointing as member and
chairman of any constitutional body.
o Step II: Send the list to the anti-corruption commission to assess their
credibility, service records and assets.
o Step III: Publish the names of the proposed persons along with their qualification
and assets in electronic and print media.
o Step IV: Make a short list of the proposed persons and send it to the Parliament
for general discussion. The parliament will send the list to the Search Committee.
o Step V: The Search Committee will finalise the panel of the Chairman and
Members and send it to the President for approval.
5. Rank of Chairman/Members
The status and rank of the Chairmen of the PSC should be made equivalent to a
Minister, and members should be equivalent to the Judges of the Appellate Division of
the Supreme Court.
6. Reforms in Examination and Recruitment System
6. An Examination and Recruitment Reform Committee should be formed to
modernise the examination and recruitment system meeting the challenges of the
service for which recruitments are made, with particular emphasis on the meritbased
recruitment, complete abolition of partisan political or any other influence in
the recruitment, and specific needs of the various cadres.
7. The existing generalised exam system should be abolished and cadre-specific
examination should be introduced to ensure efficiency and professionalism in
service.
8. The new examination system must ensure evaluation by relevant, honest and
skilled examiners.
9. A set of transparent guidelines must be prepared and publicly available consisting
of the examination rules and recruitment process.
10. The Commission should have a Complain Box to receive complaints and
suggestions from the service receivers. All complains should be duly addressed and
results made public.
7. Quota System
3. The existing quota system for freedom fighters and district are no longer
considered logical and should be abolished.
4. At least 75% of places should be on purely merit basis, while the remaining may
be distributed for affirmative action on the basis of gender, ethnic and religious
identity.
12.Access to Information
4. The mark sheet of the successful candidates should be given to the examinees on
compulsory basis immediately after the result is published;
5. The result sheet of all examinees (both successful and unsuccessful) must be
published on the website.
6. Existing restrictions against challenging the result of examinations should be
immediately abolished.
57
9. Other Management Issues
7. A website for PSC should be established with all information.
8. Computerised data base and MIS should be established with all information of
public interest publicly available through various means including website.
9. A Human Resource Unit should be established at PSC, with special emphasis on
training and capacity building of the staff.
10. All personnel of the staff should be recruited based on relevant academic
background, merit and skills.
11. Should recruit totally new officers and employees for the commission purely
based on relevant academic background, merit and necessary skills. The
reconstruction Committee on PSC will determine the required number of the staff
for PSC through feasibility study.
12. The Secretary of the PSC should be equivalent to the Secretary of the
government.
10. PSC’s Integrity Statement and Citizen’s Committee
�� Initiative should be taken to introduce Integrity Statement/Code of Ethics for the
PSC.
�� A Committee of Concerned Citizens composed of persons with proven integrity,
efficiency and commitment may be constituted to keep watch on the activities and
performance of the PSC and to suggest measure to make the PSC efficient and
honest.
11. Anti-corruption Hotline on Public Service Commission
�� A hotline (phone number or mail box) may be introduced in the office of the Anticorruption
Commission (ACC) of Bangladesh to receive all sorts of complaints
related to irregularities and corruption of the PSC. The Special Reform Committee on
the PSC and ACC may jointly explore the specific structure, and working procedure
of this hotline.
58
Annex 1
PSC in the Constitution of Bangladesh
Article
137.
Establishment of Commissions
Provision shall be made by law for establishing one or more public service commissions for
Bangladesh, each of which shall consist of a chairman and such other members as shall be
prescribed by law.
138. Appointment of members
(1) The chairman and other members of each public service commission shall be appointed by
the President.
Provided that not less than one-half of the members of a commission shall be persons who
have held office for twenty years or more in the service of any government which has at any
time functioned within the territory of Bangladesh.
(2) Subject to any law made by Parliament the conditions of service of the chairman and other
members of a public service commission shall be such as the President may, by order,
determine.
139. Term of office
(1) The term of office of the chairman and other members of a public service commission shall,
subject to the provisions of this article, expire five years after the date on which he entered
upon his office, or when he attains the age of sixty-five years, whichever is earlier;
(2) The chairman and other members of such a commission shall be removed from office
except in like manner and on he like grounds as a judge of the 85[Supreme Court].
(3) A chairman or other member of a public service commission may resign his office by
writing under his hand addressed to the President.
(4) On ceasing to hold office a mamber of a public service commission shall not be eligible for
further employment in the service of the Republic, but, subject to the provisions of clause (1)-
(a) a chairman so ceasing shall be eligible for re-appointment for one further term; and
(b) a member (other than the chairman) so ceasing shall be eligible for re-appointment for
one further term or for appointment as chairman of a public service commission.
140. Functions of Commissions
(1) The functions of a public service commission shall be-
(a) to conduct tests examinations for the selection of suitable persons for appointment of
the service of the Republic;
(b) to advise the President on any matter on which the commission is consulted under
clause (2) or on any matter connected with its functions which is referred to the
commission by the President; and
(c) such other functions as may be prescribed by law.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, and any regulation (not
inconsistent with such law) which may be made by the President after consultation with a
commission, the President shall consult a commission with respect to-
(a) matters relating to qualifications for, and methods of recruitment to, the service of the
Republic;
(b) the principles to be followed in making appointments to that service and promotions
and transfers from one branch of the service to another, and the suitability of candidates
for such appointment, promotions and transfers;
(c) matters affecting the terms and conditions (including person rights) of that service; and
(d) the discipline of the service.
141. Annual report
(1) Each commission shall, not later than the first day of March each year, prepare and submit
to the President a report of the performance of its functions during the period ended on the
previous 31st day of December.
(2) The report shall be accompanied by a memorandum setting out, so far as is known to the
commission-
(a) the cases, if any, in which its advise was not accepted and the reasons why it was not
accepted;
(b) the cases where the commission ought to have been consulted and was not consulted,
and the reasons why it was not consulted.
(3) The President shall cause the report and memorandum to be laid before Parliament at its
first meeting held after 31st March in the year in which the report was submitted.
Source: Chapter II, Article 137-141, The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 2000.
59
Annex 2
Data Source: Ahmed 1986, 1990, Ali 2004 and TIB Research Team
The Bangladesh Public Service Commission
Dec 16, 1971: Bangladesh inherited the entire setup of the EPPSC & Regional Office of CPSC in Dhaka.
Two Commissions
�� April 8, 1972: President’s Order No. 34 of 1972 was issued for establishment of two commissions
(including a provision on composition, appointment of member & Chairman and functions).
�� May 9, 1972: BPSC First to conduct competitive exams for selection of the 1st & 2nd class gazetted
civil servants and to give advise on civil service related matters to the president, and BPSC Second
for selection of non-gazetted services and to give advise to the President were established.
�� December 16, 1972: The Constitution of Bangladesh acknowledged the existence of PSC(s) and
promulgated the establishment, structure, appointment of Chairman/Members, functions, etc.
�� 1974: The Parliament enacted the Members of PSCs (Terms & Conditions of Service) Act of 1974.
Single Commission
�� December 22, 1977: The Bangladesh Public Service Commission (BPSC) was officially emerged;
�� 1981: The Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Conduct of Business) Rules, 1981.
�� December 26, 1990: BPSC Officers & Employees Recruitment Rules, 1990.
�� January 16, 1997: Government again fixed a total of 11 members & a Chairman of BPSC.
Major Changes Occurs in BPSC Since
December 16, 1971
PSC in United Pakistan (Central PSC)
�� 1947: FPSC of British India was re-named as Pakistan PSC
(PPSC).
�� March 23, 1956: PPSC re-named as Federal PSC under the
new constitution of Pakistan.
�� June 8, 1962: PPSC was re-named as Central PSC (CPSC)
under the new Constitution of Pakistan.
PSC in United Pakistan
(Provincial PSC)
�� 1947: Bengal PSC was renamed
as PSC in East Bengal.
�� Sept. 1955: Bengal PSC renamed
as East Pakistan PSC
(EPPSC) & continued till 1971.
Bengal PSC
�� May 20, 1930:
Famed rules for
Bengal Provincial
Public Services.
�� April 01, 1937:
Bengal PSC was
established under
the Government
of India Act,
1935.
PSC in British India
�� 1853: The Charter Act introduced the principles of recruitment of public
servants on open competition.
�� May 21, 1855: The first ever PSC was constituted in England.
�� January 26, 1855: The Board of Control framed regulations for conducting
competitive exams to recruit civil servants in India.
�� July 16, 1855: The first open competitive exam was held in England.
�� April 1918: Montagu-Chelmsford Committee recommended to protect the
public services from political influences.
�� 1919: Section 96 (c) (2) of the Govt. of India Act created an opportunity for
establishment of PSC in British India.
�� 1922: First ICS Exam was held in England and India simultaneously.
�� 1924: Lee Commission recommended to establish PSC both in central &
province level in British India.
�� October 01, 1926: The first ever PSC inaugurated In India.
�� 1937: PSC was redesigned at the centre as Federal Public Service Commission
(FPSC), Provincial PSC under The Government of India Act, 1935.
�� 1947: FPSC renamed as Union PSC in India & Provincial PSCs as State PSCs.
�� January 26, 1950: The Constitution of India gave constitutional and
autonomous status of FPSC.
PSC: Genesis and Development at a Glance
Major Historical Events Since Emergence of PSCs in British
India and United Pakistan
60
Annex 3
Warrant of Precedence
GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH
CABINET DIVISION
NOTIFICATION
Dhaka, September 11, 1986.
(With amendments upto 12 April 2000)
No. CD-10/1/85-Rules/361.-In suppression of all previous notification on the Warrant of
Precedence, the President is pleased to direct that the following table be henceforth observed with
respect to the precedence of persons hereinafter named, namely:-
1. President of the Republic
2. Prime Minister of the Republic
3. Speaker of the Parliament]1
4. Chief Justice of Bangladesh
Former Presidents of the Republic
5. Cabinet Ministers of the Republic, Chief Whip
Deputy Speaker of the Parliament
Leader of the Opposition in Parliament
6. Persons holding appointments accorded status of a Minister without being
members of the Cabinet.
7. Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and High Commissioners of
Commonwealth countries accredited to Bangladesh.
8. Chief Election Commissioner.
Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission
Deputy Leader of the Opposition in Parliament.
Judges of the Supreme Court (Appellate Division)
Ministers of State of the Republic, Whip
9. Election Commissioners.
Judges of the Supreme Court (High Court Division)
[Persons holding appointments accorded status of a Minister of State]2
10. Deputy Ministers of the Republic.
11. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary accredited to Bangladesh.
[Persons holding appointments accorded status of a Deputy Minister.]3
12. Cabinet Secretary
Chiefs of Staff of the Army, Navy and Air Force
Principal Secretary to the Government.
13. Members of the Parliament.
14. Visiting Ambassadors and High Commissioners not accredited to Bangladesh.
15. Attorney-General
Comptroller and Auditor-General, Ombudsman.
[Governor, Bangladesh Bank.]4
61
16. Chairman, Public Service Commission
Chairman, University Grants Commission
Inspector General of Police.
Members, Planning Commission.
Officers of the rank of Major General in the Army and equivalent in the Navy and
the Air Force.
Secretaries to the Government including Secretary to the Parliament.
Charge-d' affairs a pied of Foreign Countries.
Director General of the National Security Intelligence.
Full-time Members, University Grants Commission.
National Professors.
Officers holding status of Secretaries to the Government.
Vice-chancellors of Universities.
18. Mayors of Civic Corporation within the jurisdiction of their respective Corporations.
19. Additional Attorney-General.
Additional Secretaries to the Government.
Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission.
Chairman, Board of Land Administration.
Chairman, Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation
Chairman, Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Power Development Board.
Chairman, Bangladesh Steel and Engineering Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Sugar and Food Industries Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Textile Mills Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Water Development Board.
Chairman, Tariff Commission.
Charge-d' affairs ad-interim of Foreign Countries.
Director-General of Anti-Corruption.
Executive Vice-chairman, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council.
Managing Director, Bangladesh Krishi Bank.
Managing Director, Sonali Bank.
Professors of Universities in Selection grade.
Visiting Ambassadors and High Commissioners of Bangladesh.
20. Chairman, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Chairman, Tea Board.
Chairman, T&T Board
Chief Architect of the Government
Chief Conservator of Forests.
Chief Engineer, Roads and Highways Department
Chief Engineer, Public Works Department
[Executive Chairman, Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority.]5
Director-General, Department of Agriculture Extension.
Director of Fisheries.
Director-General of Health Services.
Director of Livestock Services.
Director-General of Primary Education.
Director-General, Secondary and Higher Secondary Education.
Director-General of Technical Education
Division Chief, Planning Commission.
Managing Director, Bangladesh Biman
Managing Director of other Nationalised Commercial Banks.
Members of the National Board of Revenue
Members, Public Service Commission
Officers of the status of Additional Secretary to the Government.
Registrar of Supreme Court.
Vice-chairman, Export Promotion Bureau.
62
Annex 4
Laws, Rules and Procedures Concerning the Formation and Functions of
PSC
�� The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 2000 (Article 137-
141, Chapter II, Public Service Commissions, Part IX, page 55-57). These
articles have been guaranteed the mandates on establishment, structure,
terms of office of Members and Chairman, functions of BPSC, etc.
�� The submission of annual reports by BPSC to the National Parliament is one of
the safeguards (Ahmed, 1990:177).
�� Bangladesh Public Service Commission Ordinance No. LVII of 1977 of the
Government of Bangladesh (The Bangladesh Gazette, Extraordinary, 28
November, Dhaka).
�� BPSC Consultation Regulations of 1979; (for establishment of a single PSC in
place of two Commissions).
�� The Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Conduct of Business) Rules,
1981.
�� BCS Recruitment Rules of 1981; (for recruitment of class I and II posts only).
�� BPSC Officers & Employees Recruitment Rules, Government of Bangladesh,
Chief Martial Law Administrator Secretariat, Establishment Division,
Recruitment Section, Notification, Dhaka April 21, 1982.
�� BPSC Officers & Employees Recruitment Rules, Government of Bangladesh,
Ministry of Establishment, Administration Section, Notification, Dhaka,
November 21, 1990.
�� Ministry of Establishment, Notification No. S.R.D. 445 A-L/86/ME/EU/S-9/86,
December 01, 1986.
63
Annex 5 A
Candidates recruited through BCS and BCS Equivalent Exams
Type of
Exams
Name of Examinations Recommended
Persons
1st BCS Examination, 1982 901
2nd BCS (Special, Admin Cadre: Recruitment of
Magistrate) Examination, 1983 650
3rd Special BCS (Health) Cadre Examination, 1983 1,001
4th Special BCS (Agriculture & Railway Engineering)
Examination, 1984 108
5th BCS Examination , 1984 7,95
6th Special BCS Examination (Cadre & Sub Cadre) , 1985 700
7th BCS Examination, 1985 (Cadre & sub-Cadre) 2,531
8th BCS Examination, 1986 2,121
9th BCS Examination, 1988-89 1,165
10th BCS Examination, 1989-90 1,022
11th BCS Examination, 1990-91 695
12th Special BCS (Police) Examination, 1990 40
13th BCS Examination, 1991-92 1,178
14th Special BCS (General Education) Examination, 1992 1,885
15th BCS Examination, 1993 858
16th Special BCS (General Education) Examination, 1994 1,348
17th BCS Examination, 1995-96 1,708
18th BCS Examination, 1996-97 1,757
19th BCS Examination, 1998 555
20th BCS Examination, 1998 2,237
21st BCS Examination, 2001 1,370
22nd BCS Examination, 2001 2,230
24th BCS Examination, 2002 5,224
25th BCS Examination, 2004 2,722
26th BCS (General Education) Examination, 2004 1,063
27th BCS Examination, 2006 3,567
BCS Examinations
Total 39,431
Examination for Appointing Merit, 1980 40
Examination for Appointing Merit, 1979 25
Bangladesh Superior Service Examination, 1979 131
Examination for Appointing Merit, 1978 24
Bangladesh Superior Service Examination, 1976 135
Special Superior Service Examination for the Non-freedom
Fighters, 1973 313
Special Superior Service Examination for the Freedom
Fighters, 1972 1,314
BCS Equivalent
Examinations
Total 1,982
Grand Total 41,413
Data Source: Ali (2002:298-300), BPSC Annual Reports (1972-2005) and
BCS results published in the Newspapers.
64
Annex 5 B
Gazette Notifications on New Appointment of BCS Cadre (finally appointed by
Ministry of Establishment)
BCS Date of
Gazettes
No. of
Gazettes
Date of the
Bangladesh
Gazettes
published
Page No. Date of
Commission’s
Recommendation
5th 31/12/1985 No.EM/Recruitment/1-
4(4)/85-475
09/01/1986 21-29 1985
7th 31/12/1987 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
2/87-390
14/01/1988 32-61 14/11/1987
8th 1989 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
8/88(Part-1)255
23/11/1989 671-700 13/05/1989
9th 22/12/1990 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
6/90(Part-1)-315
10/01/1991 21-38 14/06/1990
10th 13/11/1991 No.EM/New Appointment/ 1-
4/91-222
28/11/1991 1226-1242 22/04/1991
11th 16/02/1993 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
7/92(Part-1)-38
25/02/1993 273-283 14/09/1992
13th 23/03/1994 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
10/93(Part-1)-46
14/04/1994 401-416 31/10/1993
14th
special
20/10/1993 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
6/93(Part-1)-248
04/11/1993 1383-1403 07/07/1993
15th 7/10/1995 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
4/95-122
26/10/1995 1199-1211 01/07/1995
16th
special
04/07/1996 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
8/95-67
08/08/1996 749-767 06/11/1995
17th 14/01/1998 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
16/97-10
09/07/1998 570-584 15/09/1997
18th 20/12/1998 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
8/98-211
15/04/1999 381-404 20/08/1998
19th
special
20/09/1999 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
4/99-111
09/03/2000 181-188 11/05/1999
20th 29/04/2001 No.EM/New Appointment/1-
12/2000-30
17/05/2001 656-677 07/12/2000
21st 30/04/2003 No.EM/New
Appointment/16/2002-82
08/05/2003 421-452 04/01/2003
22nd 17/11/2003 No.EM/New
Appointment/10/2003-184
04/12/2003 1385-1415 24/08/2003
24th 13/06/2005 No.EM/New
Appointment/2005-107
07/07/2005 1251-1307 24/02/2005
25th 31/07/2006 No.EM/New Appointment-
01/2005-107
31/07/2006 22/05/2006
26th
special
01/03/2006 No.EM/New Appointment-
02/2005-37/
01/03/2006 1-12 01/09/2005
65
Annex 6
Recruitment by interview (1972-2005)
Year Recruitment Through
Interview
1972 131
1973 0
1974 436
1975 68
1976 966
1977 2,104
1978 704
1979 979
1980 1,403
1981 163
1982 115
1983 937
1984 1,347
1985 2,218
1986 252
1987 435
1988 138
1989 356
1990 419
1991 287
1992 660
1993 472
1994 788
1995 319
1996 781
1997 306
1998 314
1999 410
2000 274
2001 229
2002 0*
2003 0*
2004 0*
2005 0*
2006 0*
Total 18,011
Note * Data were not found
Source: Ali 2002:112, 157, 171
BPSC Annual Reports 1999:42, 2001:43
66
Annex 7
No. of Persons Recommended by BPSC for Promotional Recruitments
Year No. of Persons Recommended by
the Commission
1972 133
1974 229
1975 698
1976 421
1977 253
1978 355
1979 531
1980 337
1981 378
1982 381
1983 820
1984 578
1985 639
1986 656
1987 652
1988 472
1989 593
1990 908
1991 582
1992 1,022
1993 469
1994 1,020
1995 866
1996 809
1997 1,054
1998 955
1999 537
2000 986
2001 705
2002 580
2003 1,273
2004 1,506
2005 1,513
2006 0*
Total 22,911
Note: * Data were not found
Source: Ali (2002:91, 116, 159) &
BPSC Annual Reports (2005:53, 1999:54, 2001:56)
67
Annex 8
Disposal of Disciplinary Cases by BPSC (1972-2005)
Year No. of Cases
Referred to BPSC
No. of Cases
disposed by
BPSC
Pending with
BPSC
1972 27 14 13
1973 6 6 0
1974 56 53 3
1975 54 41 13
1976 82 67 15
1977 23 13 10
1978 11 4 7
1979 29 13 16
1980 48 14 34
1981 20 11 9
1984 32 24 8
1985 41 32 9
1986 53 49 4
1987 45 43 2
1988 55 53 2
1989 97 94 3
1990 259 255 4
1991 63 59 4
1992 49 32 17
1993 114 104 10
1994 162 150 12
1995 122 114 8
1996 75 54 21
1997 91 81 10
1998 88 62 26
1999 46 35 11
2000 54 48 6
2001 60 36 24
2002 86 62 24
2003 85 52 33
2004 117 83 34
2005 166 150 16
2006 0* 0* 0*
Total 2310
100.00 Percent
1902
82.34 Percent
408
17.66 Percent
Note: * Data were not found
Source: Ali (2002: 100, 121, 147, 163) &
BPSC Annual Reports (2005:64, 2002:49)
68
The Bangladesh Public Service Commission
Organizational Structure
Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member
Secretary (PSC’s Secretariat)
Chief
Psychologist
Joint
Secretary
Deputy Secretary
Finance & General
Services
Assistant
Secretary
Finance
Assistant
Secretary
General Services
Assistant
Secretary
Administration-1
Assistant
Secretary
Administration-2
Deputy Secretary
Administration
Regional
Office
Member Member
Chairman
Director
DD
BCS-1
AD
BCS-1
AD
BCS-2
DD
Appointment
& Service-1
AD
Appointment
& Service-1
Director
DD
BCS-2
DD
Appointment
& Service-2
Assistant
Director
AD
Appointment
& Service-2
Director
DD
Exam-1
DD
Appointment
& Service-3
AD
Departmental
Exam-1
AD
Appointment
& Service-3
DD
Appointment
& Service 4
DD
Appointment
& Service-4
AD
Appointment
& Service-2
AD
Appointment
& Service-2
Director
Annex 9
Note: This structure is based on Government approved structure (1989)
PSC authority denied delivering the latest structure to TIB
69
Annex 10
Background of PSCs Chairmen (prior to join PSC) since 1947
List of Chairman of PSC in the Centre in Pakistan (1947 - 1971)
TERM OF SERVICE CHAIRMAN PREVIOUS PROFESSION
October 1948 –
30.09.1952
Mr. Mian Mohammad Afzal
Hossain
Teacher College
20.10.1952-19.10.1957 Mr. Zakir Hossain IPG
27.10.1957-April 1958 Mr. Mian Aminuddin ICS
14.01.1958-15.06.1963 Lt. Col. A.S.B. Shah Army
15.06.1963-28.03.1965 Mr. Kazi Anawarul Haque IP/DIG of police
20.04.1965-25.02.1966 Mr. Agha Abdul Hamid ICS
08.03.1966-01.05.1969 Mr. Nazir Ahmed ICS
09.05.1969-1971 Mr. Ali Asghar ICS
List of Chairman of PSC in East Pakistan (1947 - 1971)
TERM OF SERVICE CHAIRMAN PREVIOUS PROFESSION
15.08.1947-15.03.1951 Mr. Sir Arthur Jules Dash Divisional Commissioner
05.04.1951-15.10.1953
Mr. Khan Bahadur Mohammed
Mahmud
Asam Civil Service
09.11.1953-08.11.1956 Mr. Dr. Syed Moazzem Hossain Teacher (University)
06.12.1956-11.03.1961 Mr. Dr. Mahmood Hasan Teacher (University)
15.12.1961-14.12.1966 Mr. MA Bary Government Servant
December 1966- Early
1970
Mr. Noor Mohammad Khan Judge
08.03.1966-01.05.1969 Mr. Dr. MA Rashid Teacher (University)
List of Chairman of PSC in Bangladesh (1972-2006)
TERM OF SERVICE CHAIRMAN PREVIOUS PROFESSION
15.05.1972 – 15.12.1977
Prof. A.Q.M. Bazlur Karim
(BPSC First)
Teacher (University)
15.05.1972 – 14.12.1977 Mohiuddin Ahmad (BPSC Second) Police
22.12.1977 – 21.12.1982 M. Moyeedul Islam Teacher (College)
22.12.1982 – 31.12.1986 Fayezuddin Ahmed Civil Servant
01.06.1986 – 01.05.1991 S.M. Al-Hussainy Civil Servant
01.02.1993 - 06.03.1993 Amin Mian Chowdhury (acting) Civil Servant
14.09.1991 – 31.01.1993 Prof. Dr. Eajuddin Ahmmed Teacher (University)
07.03.1993 - 5.03.1998 Prof. Dr. S.M.A. Faiz Teacher (University)
25.03.1998 – 22.01.2002 Prof. Dr. Md. Mostafa Chowdhury Teacher (University)
09.05.2002 – to date
(March 2007)
Prof. Dr. Zinnatun Nessa
Tahmida Begum
Teacher (University)
Data Source:
Ahmed (1990: 201-227) and TIB Investigation (January to September 2006).
70
Annex 11
Background of PSCs Members (prior to join PSC) since 1947
Members of PSC in East Pakistan (1947 - 1971)
TERM OF SERVICE CHAIRMAN PREVIOUS PROFESSION
15.09.1948-01.10.1953 Mr. MA Mridha Member of Parliament
19.11.1948-22.12.1953 Mr. Abdus Sobhan Mahmud Bengal Civil Service
30.11.1953-01.12.1956 Mr. Khan Bahadur Mahbubuddin Ahmed Bengal Civil Service
05.03.1954-02.06.1956 Mr. Khan Bahadur Abdul Hye Chowdhury Asam Civil Service
02.06.1956-01.06.1961 Mr. Jogesh Chandra Das Asam Civil Service
05.08.1957-04.08.1952 Mr. Makbul Ahmed Teacher (College)
17.06.1961-16.06.1966 Mr. AKB Karim Bengal Civil Service
06.08.1962-05.08.1967 Mr. Mofassiluddin Ahmed
East Pak Senior Edu Service &
Teacher (College)
12.07.1966- Early 1970 Mr. NM Khan District and Session Judge
08.09.1967- Early 1970 Mr. KAFM Abdul Quasem East Pak Senior Edu Service
03.11.1969-1971 Mr. M Anawaruzzaman Chief Engineer of RHD
1969 - 1971 Mr. Abdus Sobhan Khan Chowdhury East Pak Senior Edu Service
25.01.1967- 1971 Mr. Alimdad Khan Bengal Civil Service
Members in BPSC from 1972 to March 2007
TERM OF SERVICE Member PREVIOUS PROFESSION
15.05.1972 - 14.12.1977 Mohiuddin Ahmed (BPSC First ) Civil Servant
15.05.1972 -11.12.1976 Mohammad. Anwaruzzaman (BPSC First ) Engineer
15.05.1972 -12.12.1977 Awlad Hossain (BPSC First ) Engineer
15.05.1972 - 01.11.1974 Alimdad Khan (BPSC First ) Civil Servant
15.05.1972 - 29.02.1976 Bazlur Rahman (BPSC 2nd) Police
15.05.1972 - 30.10.1974 Ekramul Kabir (BPSC 2nd) Civil Servant
15.05.1972 - 15.12.1977 Joadur Rahim Jahid (BPSC 2nd) Civil Servant
15.05.1972 - 12.12.1977 Santosh Bhushan Das (BPSC 2nd) Teacher (College )
15.05.1972 - 15.12.1977 Begum Mahmuda Rahman (BPSC 2nd) Teacher (High School )
26.05.1972- 15.12.1977 Shree Shiva Prasanna Lahiry (BPSC First ) Teacher (College )
21.12.1972 - 21.12.1977 Bipin Behari Das (BPSC 2nd) Police
24.04.1973 - 08.06.1976 Dr. Skeikh Md. Mobarak Hossain (BPSC 1st) Teacher (College)
14.11.1973 - 21.12.1977 A BM Moksed Ali (BPSC First) Teacher (College)
04.12.1973 - 21.12.1977 Abdul Hannan Chowdhury (BPSC 1ST) Civil Servant
23.12.1974 - 21.12.1977 Ekramul Hoque (BPSC 2nd) Civil Servant
26.11.1974 - 1.03.1975 Adeluddin Ahmed (BPSC First ) Lawyer
18.04.1975 - 21.12.1977 Shams Uddin Ahmed Civil Servant
07.07.1975 - 21.12.1977 M. A. Awal (BPSC 2nd) Civil Servant
07.08.1975 - 21.12.1977 Hafez Habibur Rahman (BPSC First ) Teacher (college) cum Politician
17.07.1975- 21.12.1977 Azharul Islam (BPSC 2nd) Lawyer
22.12.1977- 21.12.1982 Begum Mahmuda Rahman (BPSC 2nd) Teacher (Hi School)
22.12.1977- 07.07.1990 Azharul Islam Lawyer cum Politician
22.12.1977- 07.08.1980 Hafez Habibur Rahman (BPSC First ) Teacher (College) cum Politician
22.12.1977 - 30.04.1979 Ekramul Hoque (BPSC 2nd) Civil Servant
22.12.1977 - July 1980 M. A. Awal (BPSC 2nd) Civil Servant
22.11.77 - 3.5.82 26.7.77 Dr. Shafia Khatun (BPSC First ) Teacher University)
22.12.1977 - 31.10.1981 Joy Gobinda Bhowmick Civil Servant
1977 - 01.07.1982 Begum Azizun Nessa GovT. Servant
22.12.1977 - 13.11.1978 A.B.M. Moksed Ali (2nd term) Teacher (College)
22.12.1977 - 03.12.1978 Abdul Hannan Chowdhury (BPSC First) Civil Servant
22.12.1977 - 17.09.1994 Shams Uddin Ahmed Civil Servant
04.09.1981 - 03.09.1986 Dr. Abdul Baten khan Scientist
31.10.1981 - 26.01.1982 A.H. Nural Islam Civil Servant
01.03.1982 - 01.03.1987 M. Nurus Safa Teacher (College)
01.03.1982 - 16.06.1983 Dr. M. Akram Hossain Teacher (College)
06.05.1982 - 31.12.1984 Shamsul Huq Government Servant
71
Annex 11 continue..
08.03.1982 - 31.12.1983 Salim Uddin Ahmed Civil Servant
15.07.1983 - 28.01.1985 Dr. Abdul Quasem Teacher (College)
19.12.1984 - 18.12.1989 Brig. Retd. AKM Shamsul Islam Teacher (University)
19.12.1984 - 31.03.1988 Prof. Dr. M. Sirajul Islam Teacher (University)
07.08.1990 - 31.12.1994 Brig. Retd. AKM Shamsul Islam Army & College Teacher
19.12.1984 - 31.03.1989 Brig. Retd. AKM Shamsul Islam Army & College Teacher
10.02.1985 - 06.08.1985 Professor M. A. Halim Teacher (College)
18.04.1985 - 17.04.1990 Badaruddin Ahmed Chowdhury Government Servant
15.12.1985- 14.12.1990 Professor Abul Hossain Teacher (College)
14.09.1986 - 13.09.1991 Brig. Retd. K. M. Rahaman Army Personnel
08.04.1987 - 13.04.1989 Mohammed Abdul Hai Civil Servant
07.04.1988- 31.07.1992 Professor. Mohammad A. Raquib Teacher (University)
03.07.1989 - 06.06.1994 Amin Mian Chowdhury Civil Servant
10.02.1985- 06.08.1985 Professor Dr. Shafia Khatun Teacher University)
14.09.1986 - 13.09.1991 Lft Con. Rtd. K. M. Rahman Army personal
01.04.1990 -31.12.1994 Prof. Dr. Abdul Mannan Teacher (University)
* Gias Uddin Ahmed Engineer
* A.M. Abdul Mannan Bhuiyan
* Prof. Dr. A.Z.M. Mizanur Rahman Teacher
* Prof. Zerina Zaman Teacher University)
* Mr. Md. Abdur Raqib Civil Servant
* Prof. M. Azhar-Uddin Teacher University)
06.02.1995 - 03.02.2000 Begum Khodeza Azam Teacher University)
31.12.1995 - 01.12.1999 Ziaul Haq Kutub Uddin Civil Servant
31.12.1995 - 13.02.1999 C.K.Md. Abdullah Geologist
-02.03.2002 Arun Kanti Adhikari Civil Servant
-06.01.2002 Md. Farhad Hossain Khan Engineer
2000 to 30.10.2001 Prof. Mujibur Rahman Bishwash Teacher (University)
22.05.2002-22.05.2002 Prof. Dr. K. Bazlul Hoque Teacher University)
14.02.2000-14.02.2000 Prof. Naiyer Sultana Teacher (College)
29.02.2000- 30.12.2003 Kazi Golam Rasul Civil Servant
19.04.1999 - 4.11.2000 S.M. Afaz Uddin Civil Servant
19.04.1999 - 31.08.1999 Abdul Latif Shikder Government Servant
19.04.1999 - 18.04.2004 Prof. Dr. M. Mohabbat Khan Teacher (University)
21.09.1999 - 13.08.2003 Md. Siraj Uddin Ahmed Civil Servant
21.09.1999 - 20.09.2004 Prof. Dr. Md. Sohrab Ali Teacher (University)
14.02.2000 - 21.01.2002 Prof. Hamida Banu Teacher(University)
-26.02.1999 Prof. Dr. Kazi Moshiur Rahman Teacher (University)
28.02.2001 - 28.02.2006 Md. Yahihia Mollah Civil Servant
02.12.2001 – 01.12.06 Md. Mozammel Hoque Civil Servant
10.012002 – 08.06.2005 Prof. Dr. Hasanuzzaman Chawdhury Teacher (University)
23.05.2002 - 29.01.2004 Prof. Dr. Nurul Islam Teacher (University)
10.09.2002 to date Prof. Md. Mahfuzur Rahman Teacher (University)
04.03.2003 to date Md. Abdur Rouf Engineer
07.02.2004 to date Latifur Rahman Civil Servant
25.04.2004 to date Col (hon.) Retd. Prof. Mahmudur Rahman Army Doctor
30.05.2004 to date Prof. Dr. Md. Ashraful Islam Chowdhury Teacher (University)
14.10.2004 to date Prof. Dr. Md. Nurul Islam Teacher (University)
31.10.2004 to date Muhamman Ashraf Civil Servant
07.06.2005 to date Prof. Shahdat Hossain Mondal Teacher (University)
06.03.2006 to date M. Anwarul Hoq Teacher (College)
17.10.2006 to date Prof. Dr. Fazlul Hoq
Note : *Data were not found
Data Source: Ahmed (1990: 201-227) and
TIB Investigation (January 2006 March 2007)
72
Annex 12
An overview of Human Resource at PSC
Class
Designation Allocated
No. of Posts
Filled up
Posts
Vacant
Positions
1. Secretary 1 1 0
2. Joint Secretary 1 0 1
3. Controller of Exam 1 1 0
4. Chief Psychologist 1 1 0
5. Deputy Secretary 2 2 0
6. Director 7 7 0
7. System Analyst 1 1 0
8. Deputy Director 12 12 0
9. Psychologist 2 2 0
10. Programmer 1 1 0
11. Senior Research & Statistical Officer 1 0 1
12. Assistant Secretary 3 3 0
13. Assistant Director 22 18 4
14. Accounts Officer 1 1 0
15. Junior Psychologist 2 0 2
16. Research Officer 1 0 1
17. Statistical Officer 1 0 1
18. Public Communications Officer 1 0 1
1st Class
(total 62)
19. Librarian 1 1 0
Total 62 51 11
1. Junior Research Officer 1 0 1
2. Assistant Librarian 1 1 0
3. Administrative Officer 27 27 0 2nd Class
4. Personal officer 23 23 0
Total 52 51 1
1. Accountant 1 1 0
2. Accountant VS Treasurer 5 4 1
3. Computer Operator 1 1 0
4. Typist 19 16 3
5. Assistant Trainer 1 1 0
6. Caretaker 1 1 0
7. Store Keeper 1 1 0
8. Cataloger 2 2 0
9. Treasurer 1 1 0
10. Assistant Accountant 7 7 0
11. Data Entry Operator 3 3 0
12. Office Assistant VS Typist 33 32 1
13. Typist 21 21 0
14. Receptionist 1 1 0
15. Telephone Operator 2 2 0
16. Audio Visual Equipment Operator 1 1 0
17. Offset Machine operator 1 1 0
18. Plate Maker 1 1 0
19. Assistant Offset Machine Operator 1 1 0
20. Cutting Machine Cum Binder 1 1 0
21. Stitching Machine Cum Binder 1 1 0
22. Driver 20 20 0
23. Cash Sarkar 1 1 0
24. Duplicating Machine Operator 2 1 1
25. Dispatch Rider 2 2 0
3rd Class
(total 134)
26. Office-Keeper 4 4 0
Total 134 128 6
1. M.L.S.S.(Pion) 75 46 29
2.Guard 5 4 1
3. Night Guard 9 7 2
4. Sweeper 6 5 1
4th Class
(total 96)
5. Gardener 1 1 0
Total 96 63 33
Total Human Resource 344 293 51
Percentage 100 85 15
Date Source: BPSC Annual Report, 2005, p.75-76
73
Annex 13 A
Total Time Spent in BCS & Equivalent Exams (1971-2006)
Name of Examination and Year
Type of
BCS
Date of
Advertisement
Date of
Recommenda
tion by PSC
Time
spent
(Month)
1st BCS Examination, 1982 General 10.06.82 7.08.83 14
2nd Special BCS (Admin Cadre:
Recruitment of Magistrate)
Examination, 1983
Special 22.12.82 22.05.83 5
3rd Special BCS (Health) Cadre
Examination, 1983
Special
31.01.83 11.04.84 14.5
4th Special BCS (Agri. & Railway
Engin.) 1984
Special
10.11.83 09.06.84 7
5th BCS Examination , 1984 General 26.01.84 13.07.85 17.5
6th Special BCS Exam (Cadre & Sub
Cadre) 1985
Special
9.07.84 14.11.86 28
7th BCS Examination, 1985 (Cadre &
Sub Cadre)
Special
12.10.85 14.11.87 25
8th BCS Examination, 1986 General 30.12.86 13.05.89 28
9th BCS Examination, 1988-89 General 15.10.88 19.06.90 19
10th BCS Examination, 1989-90 General 24.05.89 22.04.91 24
11th BCS Examination, 1990-91 General 28.05..90 14.09.92 27.5
12th Special BCS (Police)
Examination., 1990
Special 13.09.90 15.12.90 3
13th BCS Examination, 1991-92 General 15.06.91 31.10.93 28.5
14th Special BCS (General Education)
Exam, 1992
Special
04.06.92 07.07.93 13
15th BCS Examination, 1993 Special 27.05.93 01.07.95 25
16th Special BCS (General Education)
Exam, 1994
Special
27.04.94 06.11.95 18.5
17th BCS Examination, 1995 General 30.03.95 30.05.95 27.5
19th BCS Examination , 1998 Special 18.05.98 11.05.99 10
20th BCS Examination 1998 General 25.05.98 07.12.00 29
21st BCS Examination 2001 General 15.07.99 30.11.02 40
22nd BCS Examination 2001 General 17.08.00 24.08.03 36
23rd BCS Examination (Freedom
Fighters)
Special
24th BCS Examination 2002 General 12.09.02 24.02.05 34
25th BCS Examination 2004 General 28.02.04 13.04.06 17
26th BCS (General Education)
Examination, 2004
Special 29.08.04 02.08.05 12
27th BCS Examination, 2005 26.06.05 21.01.07 19
Sub-total (Total time spent) 522
Note: Information on 18th BCS exam was not found
General BCS Exams covers both general and technical/professional cadres in one exam;
Special covers BCS any one of the general or the technical/professional cadre
Total time taken in BCS Exams (in months)
�� Average time taken for General BCS : 24.75 months
�� Average time taken Special BCS : 14.00 months
Data Source: Ali (2002:298-300), BPSC Annual Reports and TIB Field Survey
74
Annex 13 B
List of BCS Cadres
Name of the BCS Cadre
1. BCS (Administration)
2. BCS (Police)
3. BCS (Foreign)
4. BCS (Agriculture)
5. BCS (Livestock)
6. BCS (Health & Family Planning)
7. BCS (General Education)
8. BCS (Public Works)
9. BCS (Road and Highways)
10.BCS (Public Health Engineering)
11. BCS (Trade)
12.BCS (Telecommunication)
13. BCS (Ansar)
14. BCS (Food)
15.BCS (Cooperative)
16.BCS (Railway Engineering)
17.BCS (Railway Trade and Commerce)
18.BCS (Fisheries)
19. BCS (Education: Technical)
20. BCS (Economic)
21. BCS (Statistics)
22. BCS (Audit and Accounts)
23. BCS (Customs & Excise)
24.BCS (Taxation)
25. BCS (Information)
26.BCS (Judicial)
27.BCS (Postal)
28.BCS (Forest)
* Note: BCS Secretariat cadre was merged with BCS Administration cadre in 1992
• Data source:
Ali, 2004:310-312; Khan, 1998:51
Ministry of Establishment Gazette Notifications (1980-2002)
75
Annex 14
BCS candidates dropped by Ministry of Establishment
Dropped Cases
(by Ministry of Establishment)
BCS
Exams
Recommen
ded by
BPSC
Notified in the
Gazettes
Dropped cases Number Percentage
5th 795 759 36 4.53
7th 2531 2397 134 5.29
8th 2121 2048 73 3.44
9th 1165 1056 109 9.36
10th 1022 908 114 11.15
11th 695 642 53 7.63
13th 1178 1112 66 5.60
14th 1885 1832 53 2.81
15th 858 783 75 8.74
16h 1348 1252 96 7.12
17th 1708 558 1150 67.33
18th 1757 1536 221 12.58
19th 555 547 8 1.44
20th 2237 2008 229 10.24
21st 1370 1288 82 5.99
22nd 2230 2226 4 .18
24th 5224 5067 157 3.01
25th 2722 2662 60 2.20
26th 1063 1047 16 1.51
Total 32,464 29,728 2736 8.43
Data Source:
�� Data on the 5th, 7th -11th, 13th – 22nd, 24th, 25th BCS exams have been collected
from Gazette Notifications published by Ministry of Establishment;
�� Ali (2002:298-300), and BPSC Annual Reports
76
Annex 15
An overview of BCS Examinees notified in the Gazettes (By sex and religion)
Name General Cadre Professional Cadre
of
BCS
Exam
s
Male Female Muslim Hindu,
Budhya &
Christian
Male Female Muslim Hindu, Budhya
& Christian
5th 598 74 578 94 80 7 74 13
7th 621 85 610 96 1,405 233 1,401 237
8th 344 50 347 47 1,370 242 1,354 258
9th 227 33 222 38 647 149 679 117
10th 232 35 235 32 564 77 536 105
11th 217 35 233 19 339 54 357 36
13th 318 50 352 16 636 108 656 88
14th 0 0 0 0 1,318 514 1,631 201
15th 271 46 302 15 373 93 438 28
16th 0 0 0 0 873 378 1,137 114
17th 158 20 171 7 321 59 336 44
18th 290 66 330 26 991 192 1,015 168
19th 0 0 0 0 493 54 459 88
20th 379 83 426 36 1,182 364 1,346 200
21st 311 67 348 30 725 172 785 112
22nd 352 82 415 19 1,466 330 1,579 217
24th 570 140 677 33 3,123 1,232 4,021 334
25th 405 97 481 21 1,586 576 1,944 218
26h 0 0 0 0 702 345 991 56
5,293 963 5,727 529 18,194 5,179 20,739 2,634
Total
6,256 6,256 23,373 23,373
Grand Total : 29,629 (as per gazetted data)
General Cadre gazetted 6,256 (21.11% in 19 BCS Exams)
Professional Cadre gazetted 23,373 (78.89% in 19 BCS Exams)
Female Appointments: 6,142 (20.73% in in 19 BCS Exams or 15.39% in general cadre
& 22.15% in professional cadre)
BCS Professional Cadre: 23,373(78.89%)
Non-Muslim Appointments (Hindu, Buddhist & Christian):
3,163 (10.67% including 5% tribal quota or 8.46% in general
cadre; 11.27% in professional cadre)
Data Source: Based on collected Gazette Notifications for new appointments of BCS Cadres
77
12%
16%
10%
16%
15%
14%
15%
12% 12%
14%
12%
9%
13%
8%
5%
9%
6%
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
18%
5th
(1986)
7th
(1988)
9th
(1991)
10th
(1991)
11th
(1993)
13th
(1994)
15th
(1995)
16th
(1996)
17th
(1998)
18th
(1999)
19th
(2000)
20th
(2001)
21st
(2003)
22nd
(2003)
24th
(2005)
25th
(2006)
26th
(2006)
BCS Exams & Year
Percentage
Annex 16 A
Figure on the representation of religious and ethnic minority in BCS Professional
Cadre.
Data Source: Based on collected Gazette Notifications for new appointments of BCS Cadres
78
8%
14%
19%
14%
28%
30%
16%
24%
28% 27%
33%
12%
20%
15%
19%18%
10%
16%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
5th (1986) 7th ('88) 9th ('91) 10th ('91) 11th ('93) 13th ('94) 14th ('93) 15th ('95) 16th ('96) 17th ('98) 18th ('99) 19th ('00) 20st ('01) 21st ('03) 22th ('03) 24th ('05) 25th ('06) 26th ('06)
Status of Professional Cadres in BCS Exams and Years
P e rce n ta ge
11%
12%
13% 13%
16%
14% 14%
15%
11%
19%
18% 18%
19%
20%
27%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
5th
(1985)
7th
(1988)
8th
(1989)
9th
(1991)
10th
(1991)
11th
(1993)
13th
(1994)
15th
(1995)
17th
(1998)
18th
(1999)
20th
(2001)
21st
(2003)
22nd
(2003)
24th
(2005)
25th
(2006)
Status of General Cadres in BCS Exams and Years
Percentage
Annex 16 B
Figure on the representation of Women in General Cadres of BCS Exams
Figure on the representation of Women in Professional Cadres of BCS Exams
Data Source: Based on collected Gazette Notifications for new appointments of BCS Cadres
79
Annex 17
Types of questions asked in the BCS viva board
Responses
Percentage
of response
Subject studied at graduate and post graduate level 60.9
Rationales on favour of preferred cadre/ Cadre focused questions 30.8
General knowledge 30.6
Personal/family/telling about self/career plan 26.1
International affairs/bilateral issues (India-Bangladesh) 13.9
Current affairs 9.0
Tell about success and failure of political issues 8.4
On religion 5.7
English conversation, translation/spelling 4.0
Social and political problems/issues/economic problems or issues 4.0
To tell about own area or locality 3.5
Constitution of Bangladesh 3.0
On literature 2.5
Hierarchy of cadres preferred by the examinee 1.5
Taking bribe 1.2
Foreign affairs of Bangladesh 1.0
Present job 1.0
Freedom fight/Liberation War of Bangladesh 1.0
Psychological issues 0.8
Bangali and Bangladeshi Nationalism 0.7
Sura-karat /Islamic issues/sura from the quran 0.7
About reading newspaper 0.7
Can not remember 0.7
Rationale for attending BCS exam 0.5
Robindra Songeet songs/ cultural issues 0.2
Historical issues 0.2
Total Informants 402*
*Missing cases/informants 32
1
Annex 18
Weeding and Destruction of Records (‡iKW© evQvB I webóKiY)
97| kvLv mnKvix cÖwZ ermi Rvbyqvix gv‡m Òwebó‡hvM¨ bw_mg~‡ni wbeÜb ewnÓ (Register of Files due for
destruction) ch©v‡jvPbv Kwiqv †mB erm‡ii g‡a¨ webó‡hvM¨ bw_mg~‡ni GKwU ZvwjKv cÖ¯—yZ Kwi‡eb| webó‡hvM¨
bw_Mywjmn wZwb H ZvwjKvwU kvLv cÖav‡bi wbKU ‡ck Kwi‡eb| webó Kwievi c~‡e© kvLv cÖavb H bw_mg~n cwoqv
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wZwb KZw`‡bi Rb¨ Dnv iw¶Z nB‡e, Zvnv wb‡`©k c~e©K wjwLZ Av‡`k cÖ`vb Kwi‡eb|
98| †h gK bw_/bw_cÎ msi¶YvMv‡i ¯’vbvš—i Kwi‡Z n‡B‡e, cÖwZ ermi Rvbyqvix gv‡m kvLv mnKvix Zvnvi `yB cÖ¯’
ZvwjKv ˆZwi Kwi‡eb| ZvwjKvi GKwU cÖ¯’ kvLv‡Z iw¶Z nB‡e Ges Aci cÖ¯’ bw_mg~nmn bw_cÎ msi¶YvMv‡i ‡cÖwiZ
nB‡e|
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wb‡`©kvbymv‡i web‡ói Rb¨ cÖ¯‘yZ mKj Ò†MvcbxqÓ I Òwe‡kl †MvcbxqÓ bw_mg~n Ges KvMRcÎ webó Kwi‡Z nB‡e|
Ab¨vb¨ bw_ I KvMRcÎ GKRb `vwqZ¡c~Y© Kg©Pvixi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z webó Kwi‡Z nB‡e| e¨env‡ii Rb¨ Avi cÖ‡qvRb nB‡e
bv, GBiƒc msev`cÎ, msKjb, †cÖm-KvwUs, †gvo‡Ki KvMRcÎ (wrapping papers) wbjv‡g weμq Kwiqv
†dwj‡Z nB‡e|
Drm: mwPevjq wb‡`©kgvjv (Secretariat Instructions), 1976, gš¿x cwil` mwPevjq msMVb I
e¨e¯’vcbv wefvM, MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi|
2
Annex 19
On the Issues Service Recipients of the PSC Want to Know About
1. Result sheet to the examinees on all exams (preliminary, written & viva voce) in
details.
2. Result of all exams especially BCS Exam on online/website.
3. A detail information of the recommended candidates including his/her quota.
4. A calendar on year long activities/operations of BPSC.
5. Standard of the assessment or selection of the examinees.
6. Specific qualification and eligibility criteria for appointment of Chairman and
Members.
7. Transparent /specific procedure for appointment of BPSC Chairman and Members.
8. Accountability measures for Chairman and Members, officers and employees.
9. Rules of business for Chairman and Members.
10. Detail status of wealth of BPSC Chairman and Members, officers and employees.
11. Access to information whenever one needs.
12. Receipt of acceptance document for application.
13. Standard of the assessment or selection of the examinees.
14. A transparent and specific procedure for viva voce.
15. Give explanation for delay of the result.
16. Provision to give solution sheet of preliminary examination to the candidates.
17. Accountability mechanisms of BPSC officials and employees.
18. Recruitment related information through daily newspaper, notice board.
19. Provision for delivery of answer sheet of preliminary exam to the examinees.
20. Explain the position of BPSC when allegations raised from the Service Recipients.
21. Inquiry reports.
22. Reasons for rejections of application.
23. Explanation for delay of the result.
24.BPSC’s Annual income and expenditures.
25.BPSC Annual Report, etc.
3
Annex 20
Proposed Integrity Statement on the Bangladesh Public Service Commission123
Our
Commitment
We are committed to recruit most competent candidates through a transparent,
accountable, equitable, efficient, non-partisan, corruption free and responsive
transparent manner for the civil service of the people’s republic of Bangladesh and to
give advice on civil service related matters (e.g., promotion, transfer and discipline,
etc.).
Our Mission
Our missions are (a) to conduct tests examinations for the selection of suitable
persons for appointment of the service of the Republic; (b) to advise the President on
public service related matters; matters relating to qualifications and methods of
recruitment to the service of the Republic; the principles to be followed in making
appointments to that service and promotions and transfers from one branch of the
service to another, and the suitability of candidates for such appointment, promotions
and transfers; matters affecting the terms and conditions (including persons’ rights) of
that service; and the discipline of the service.
Service
Standards
We will carry out our functions/missions in a fair, transparent, non-partisan, equitable
and efficient manner.
Access to
Information
We will provide all sorts of information that you require at any convenient time. Our
works/activities will be available in the website.
Right to
Justice
We will consider your request for re-checking your final result only if you are able to
face at least Viva Voce.
Application
& Receipt/
Rejection of
Application
The interested candidates can apply through prescribed form, and will provide you a
receipt of acceptance for submitting the documents to us.
If we disqualify any candidate in case of any kind of recruitment, we will let you know
the reasons in details, as early as, possible by a letter.
Assurance
for Jobs
As per constitutional mandate our responsibility is to search the most competent
persons for the republic, and then recommend their names to the Ministry of
Establishment. But it is not our mandate to give you assurance that the respective
ministry is going to appoint you. Those respective ministries reserve every power to
confirm your appointment or can disqualify you on any convenient reason.
The Annual
Report
This report will be available for all in the web site. You will get information on the
background of Chairmen/Members; the list of Officers and employees together with
their qualifications, duties; code of conduct of all; budgets and expenses, a detail of
several exams, an overview of the recommended cadres and non-cadres (including
their quota information), institutional capacity and limitations, resources available, etc.
It will also cover research findings and recommendations on the civil service related
matters.
If You
Knock Us
If any member of the republic knock us by phone or fax or e-mail addressing any
query, any complain against any officer or member or employee, we will respond to
the correspondent within a week. We declare the following working hours for the
making inquires and giving services:
Sunday to Thursday 9 am – 5 pm
We want to hear your suggestions and complaints as well. We are committed to
continue to improve our work procedures and services. If you like to make suggestion
for improvements or any complain about our services provided, please do not hesitate
to inform us through contact in the following addresses:
Feedback/
Complains For General Issues
The Secretary
The Bangladesh Public Service Commission
Old Airport Building, Tejgoan, Dhaka-1215
Phone: 811143-7, 9120880-4
Fax: 880-2-813520
For Complain please Mail to
The Chairman
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on
Ministry of Establishment
National Parliament Secretariat
Sher-E-Banglad Nagar, Bangladesh
123This is a proposed Charter which may be further modified and developed by BPSC or concerned authority as
necessary.
4
Annex 21
Note of Dissent (‡bvU Ae wW‡m›U)
Member of the Bangladesh Public Service Commission (Terms and Condition of Service)
Act-1974 Gi ms‡kvabxi 2 avivq Ò(a) chairman Ges (b) member Gi gvwmK †eZb-fvZv e„w×i cª¯—v‡e
AvcwË Rvbvw”Q| Kvib eZ©gvb Public Service Commission Gi †Pqvig¨vb Ges mKj m`m¨ mZZv I wbi‡c¶Zvi
mwnZ mKj `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Qb bv| miKvwi Kg©KZ©v wb‡qv‡Mi †hvM¨Zv hvPvB cix¶vi cÖkoecÎ duvm K‡i ‡`Iqv Ges
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w`‡Z cvwi bv e‡j Avgiv AvcwË Rvbvw”Q|
GQvov Public Service Commission Gi R‰bK m`m¨ Rbve gvndzRyi ingvb Zvi wbR †Rjvq wM‡q wbe©vPb Ki‡eb
g‡g© †NvlYv w`‡q‡Qb| ZvQvov wc,Gm,wmÕi eZ©gvb †Pqvig¨vb Aa¨vwcKv wRboevZzb †bQv Zvn&wg`v †eMg kc_ wb‡qB
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ivRbxwZ Kivi BPQv _v‡K Z‡e †m wbi‡c¶ mvsweavwbK c‡` B¯—dv w`‡q Zv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| hLb wbi‡c¶, mr e¨w³‡`i
Øviv wcGmwm MwVZ n‡e †KejgvÎ ZLbB †eZb-fvZv e„w×i welqwU we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
ab¨ev`v‡š—-
1| Dcva¨¶ †gv. Avãym knx`
237, †gŠjfxevRvi-4
2| Av.L.g. Rvnv½xi †nvmvBb
115, cUzqvLvjx-3
Z‡_¨i Drm: evsjv‡`k RvZxq msm`, The Member of the Bangladesh Public Service Commission
(Terms and Condition of Service) (Amendment) Bill, 2006, cix¶vKiY m¤ú‡K© ms¯’vcb gš¿Yvjq
m¤úwK©Z ¯’vqx KwgwUi wi‡cvU©, †deª“qvwi 2006, c„óv 3
5
Annex 22
Informants’ Background at a glance
Informants by Sex: Female: 69 (16%)
Male : 365 (84%)
Informants by Religion: Muslims: 391 (90%)
Others : 43 (10%)
Informants by type of BCS BCS Cadre/Successful BCS Examinees: 115 (26% of total 434)
Examinees: Unsuccessful BCS Examinees: 319 (74% of total 434)
Informants by types of General Cadre: 33 (29%)
BCS Cadre: Professional Cadre: 82 (71%)
Occupation of Unsuccessful BCS
Examinee (n=319)
Government Officer
Unemployed / Housewife
Teacher (School/College/University)
1st & 2nd Class Govt. Employee
Student
Journalist/Business/Physician
%
34.8
27.6
13.8
9.1
7.8
6.0
Informants by Prof. Cadre
(n=82)
General Education
Health
Economic
Agriculture
Statistics
Technical Education
Road & Highways
Others
%
69.5
18.3
4.9
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
2.4
Informants by General Cadre
(n=33)
Administration
Police
Taxation
Audit and Accounts
Information (General)
Railway Transport. & Commercial
Cooperative
%
42.4
30.3
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
3.0
Educational Inst. Studied
(n= 433)
Public University (General)
National University and its Colleges
Public University or equivalent
Medical or equal
Private University (General)
Private University(Technical)
%
83.1
7.2
5.1
3.9
0.5
0.2
Subject studied (n=434)
Social Science/Arts/Humanities
Science (General/Agriculture)
Business Studies/Commerce
Medical
Engineering
Others
%
58.5
22.8
8.8
3.9
1.4
4.6
Result at undergraduate or equivalent
1st class - 15 %
2nd class - 84 %
3rd class - 1 %
Father’s education (n=433)
Secondary or equivalent
Graduate or equivalent
Post graduate or equivalent
Higher Secondary or equivalent
Primary
Can sign only
%
29.1
28.2
14.8
12.5
9.7
5.8
6
Informants’ Background at a glance continued……..
Monthly Average
Household income (n=426)
5001-10000
25001 or more
10001-15000
15001-20000
5000 or below
20001-25000
%
25.8
25.1
18.8
16.2
7.0
7.0
Mother’s education (n=431)
Secondary or equivalent
Primary
Can sign only
Higher Secondary or equivalent
Graduate or equivalent
Post graduate or equivalent
%
46.2
26.9
9.7
7.9
5.3
3.8
Father’s Main Occupation
(n=424)
Retired
Agriculture
Business
Teaching
Government Service
Service holder
Physician/Lawyer/
Engineer/Journalist/Imam
%
22.6
21.0
20.0
17.0
9.2
6.6
3.5
Mother’s Main Occupation
(n=427*)
Housewife
Teaching
Service/ Government Service
Retired/ Agriculture/ Business
%
89.7
6.8
2.1
1.4
Note: Total Informants 434
7
Annex 23 A
Income, Expenditure & Net Budget Received from Government Treasury at a
glance
Year Income Expenditure Net budget received
state treasury
1997 2,31,26,644 3,24,64,424.38 93,37,780
(-28.76%)
1998 2,74,06,573 3,96,82,879.53 1,22,76,306
(-30.94%)
1999 3,33,38,067 3,87,17,578.38 53,79,511
(-13.89%)
2000 4,03,62,807 4,88,58,067.95 84,95,261
(-17.39%)
2001 3,56,41,579.21 4,82,19,965.37 1,25,78,386
(-26.09%)
2002 5,64,24,483.5 4,67,66,803.9 96,57,680
(+16.94%)
2003 5,02,34,478 5,26,53,153.45 24,18,675
(-23.71%)
2004 5,76,72,366 6,80,27,004.83 1,03,54,638
(-15.22%)
2005 5,14,11,348 6,58,44,758.18 1,44,33,410
(-21.92%)
8
Annex 23 B
Table Income of BPSC in various years:
Year Sector Amount (Taka) Reference
Examination Fee 2,06,32,100.00
Application Fee 24,35,410.00
Others 59,134.00
1997
Total 2,31,26,644.00
Annual
Report 1999,
page 80
Examination Fee 2,18,91,875.00
Application Fee 54,79,320.00
Others 35,378.00
1998
Total 2,74,06,573.00
Annual
Report 1999,
page 80
Examination Fee 2,80,61,100.00
Application Fee 51,76,020.00
Others 100,947.00
1999
Total 3,33,38,067.00
Annual
Report 1999,
page 80
Examination Fee 3,91,98,161.00
Application Fee 10,62,200.00
Others 1,02,446.00
2000
Total 4,03,62,807.00
Annual
Report 2001,
page 93
Examination Fee 2,99,05,135.00
Application Fee 57,04,750.00
Others 31,694.21
2001
Total 3,56,41,579.21
Annual
Report 2001,
page 93
Examination Fee 4,77,62,494
Application Fee 80,23,110
Usage of Public Vehicles 57,369
Selling Tender Schedule 27,000
Selling backdated Vehicles 5,39,856
Tax at Source 14,627.50
2002
Total 5,64,24,483.50
Annual
Report 2002,
page 66
Examination Fee 3,87,19,025.00
Usage of Public Vehicles 1,21,180.00
Selling Tender Schedule 28,800.00
Used Products 13,59,878.00
Various & Revenue
Collection
1,08,59,690.00
Income Tax 1,08,565.00
VAT 2,14,210.00
2005
Total 5,14,11,348.00
Annual
Report 2005,
page 13
9
Table Expenditure of BPSC in various years:
Year Sector Amount (Taka) Reference
a) Salary Of Chairman &
Members
12,73,624.35
b) Salary of Officers 34,05,208.47
c) Salary of Institutional
Employees
62,44,775.60
d) Relevant expenditure on
Remuneration &
Honorarium
69,82,365.17
1) Postal & Telegraph 2,75,000.00
2) Telephone 21,82,368.33
3) Gas, Electricity, WASA 7,87,704.18
4) House rent (Regional
offices)
-
5) Purchase of Furniture
(Regional offices)
-
6) a. Purchase of vehicles -
b. Maintenance of
Vehicles & Fuel
19,24,228.84
Expenditure regarding
Examination
36,92,720.21
Purchase of Books &
Periodicals
1,03,683.50
Others 55,92,745.73
1997
Total 3,24,64,424.38
Annual
Report 1999,
page 81
a) Salary Of Chairman &
Members
18,85,959.75
b) Salary of Officers 44,19,962.03
c) Salary of Institutional
Employees
81,32,732.58
d) Relevant expenditure on
Remuneration &
Honorarium
75,03,165.32
1) Postal & Telegraph 5,26,059.48
2) Telephone 22,18,529.13
3) Gas, Electricity, WASA 6,64,920.38
4) House rent (Regional
offices)
-
5) Purchase of Furniture
(Regional offices)
-
6) a. Purchase of vehicles 40,42,457.00
b. Maintenance of
Vehicles & Fuel
19,61,443.10
Expenditure regarding
Examination
66,67,023.20
Purchase of Books &
Periodicals
1,54,929.00
Others 15,05,708.56
1998
Total 3,96,82,879.53
Annual
Report 1999,
page 81
1999 a) Salary Of Chairman &
Members
15,19,944.40 Annual
10
b) Salary of Officers 48,79,225.60
c) Salary of Institutional
Employees
79,63,204.12
d) Relevant expenditure on
Remuneration &
Honorarium
94,09,653.92
1) Postal & Telegraph 4,38,000.00
2) Telephone 25,81,214.50
3) Gas, Electricity, WASA 11,10,891.51
4) House rent (Regional
offices)
5,83,860.00
5) Purchase of Furniture
(Regional offices)
1,41,730.00
6) a. Purchase of Vehicles -
b. Maintenance of
Vehicles & Fuel
21,25,014.62
Expenditure regarding
Examination
62,89,608.00
Purchase of Books &
Periodicals
75,093.00
Others 16,00,138.68
Total 3,87,17,578.38
Report 1999,
page 81
a) Salary Of Chairman &
Members
20,78,988.00
b) Salary of Officers 90,71,489.17
c) Salary of Institutional
Employees
69,87,508.17
d) Remuneration &
Honorarium
1,05,35,297.06
e) Relevant Expenditures
1) Expenditure on Traveling 3,07,289.00
2) Postal & Telegraph 6,05,000.00
3) Telephone 21,24,961.19
4) WASA 1,86,051.88
5) Electricity 6,69,365.98
6) House Rent (Regional
Offices)
5,34,460.00
7) Gas & Fuel 1,94,349.00
8) Petrol & Lubricants 15,35,729.00
9) Communication Cost 2,74,722.00
10) Expenditure regarding
Examination
1,09,99,278.00
11) Others 17,50,158.50
12) Repairing Vehicles 8,15,846.00
13) Purchase of Furniture 1,87,575.00
2000
Total 4,88,58,067.95
Annual
Report 2001,
page 94
a) Salary Of Chairman &
Members
22,72,888.59
b) Salary of Officers 88,28,761.17
c) Salary of Institutional
Employees
66,85,418.06
d) Remuneration &
Honorarium
1,09,06,253.63
2001
e) Relevant Expenditures
Annual
Report 2001,
page 94
11
1) Expenditure on Traveling 3,11,429.75
2) Postal & Telegraph 5,90,000.00
3) Telephone 20,61,989.34
4) WASA 1,86,990.05
5) Electricity 6,57,315.94
6) House Rent (Regional
Offices)
5,15,860.00
7) Gas & Fuel 1,92,108.58
8) Petrol & Lubricants 13,13,009.25
9) Communication Cost 2,74,721.27
10) Expenditure regarding
Examination
1,09,94,677.08
11) Others 15,83,692.80
12) Repairing Vehicles 8,12,719.86
13) Purchase of Furniture 32,130.00
Total 4,82,19,965.37
Salary of Officers:
1) Salary Of Chairman &
Members
19,54,251
2) Salary of other Officers 70,82,955.87
Salary of Institutional
Employees
67,36,513.47
Remunerations 1,04,26,555.34
Delivery & Service
Expenditure on Traveling 19,301.45
House Rent (Regional
Offices)
5,26,060
Postal 6,50,000
Telephone/Telegram 31,50,967
Water 1,62,855.32
Electricity 10,50,747.45
Gas & Fuel 60,837
Petrol & Lubricants 19,52,662
Communication Cost 3,46,078
Expenditure regarding
Examination
23,66,034
Others 12,89,197
Repairing & Maintenance
Motor & Vehicles 18,79,070
Computer & Machineries 68,280
Collection of Wealth/
Purchasing
Motor Vehicle 69,08,000
Furniture 1,36,439
2002
Total 4,67,66,803.90
Annual
Report 2002,
page 67
Salary of Chairman &
members
19,39,785.00
Salary of other Officers 95,89,119.36
Salary of Institutional
Employees
93,90,424.58
Remunerations 1,29,06,196.97
Delivery & Service
2005
Expenditure on Traveling 5,46,097.64
Annual
Report 2005,
page 14
12
House Rent (Regional
Offices)
5,96,660.00
Postal 3,95,000.00
Telephone/Telegram 16,45,932.00
Water 1,42,671.32
Electricity 12,20,087.65
Gas 79,459.00
Petrol 26,31,287.00
Communication 6,27,809.00
Wages
Expenditure regarding
Examination
2,01,58,624.00
Others 22,54,228.66
Repairing & Maintenance
Motor Vehicles 15,28,963.00
Computer 1,46,181.00
Collection of Wealth/
Purchasing
-
Motor Vehicle -
Purchase of Computer
machinery
14,990.00
Furniture 31,242.00
Office Materials -
Total 6,58,44,758.18
13
Annex 24
List of Field Investigators contributed to the Opinion Survey
Name Academic Background
1. Abdul Matin MSS, Anthropology
2. Asifur Haidar Chowdhury MSC, Statistics
3. Md. Khaled Saifullah MSS, Sociology
4. Md. Mahidul Islam MSS, Anthropology
5. Md. Mahmudur Rahman MSS, Public Administration
6. Md. Nasir uddin MSS, Anthropology
7. Md. Rezaul Karim BSS, Urban and Rural Planning
8. Md. Shahedur Rahman Shamim MSS, Sociology
9. Muhammad Mustafizur Rahman MSS, Public Administration
10. Muhammad Rakibul Hasan MSS, Public Administration
11. Muradul Islam MSS, Peace & Conflict Studies
12. Nizamuddin Bhuiyan MSS, Sociology
13. Nure Azam Palash Mahmud MSS, Public Administration
14. Sebak Kumar saha MSS, Sociology
15. Subas Kujur MSS, Government & Politics
16. Syed Ashik-E-Elahi MSS, Sociology
17. Ziaur Rahaman MSC, Statistics
14
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15
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4. ‰`wbK RbKÚ, ivRkvnx‡Z miKvi`jxq K¨vWvi †bÎxiv wewmGm cix¶v w`‡PQ eB Ly‡j, GwcÖj 24, 2006|
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9. ‰`wbK BbwKjve, wcGmwmi mv‡eK †Pqvig¨vbmn 5 R‡bi wei“‡× gvgjvq `ybx©wZ `gb ey¨‡ivi PvR©wmU, ‡g 15, 2002|
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11. ‰`wbK B‡ËdvK, wewmGm cix¶v ïi“!! fyqv cÖkoecÎ wewj K‡i jvL jvL UvKv KvgvB, gvP© 19, 2006|
12. ‰`wbK †fv‡ii KvMR, duvm nIqv cÖ‡koei 27 Zg wewmGm cix¶vi dj cÖKv‡k †Zvo‡Rvo,, Rvbyqvwi 15, 2007|
13. ‰`wbK †fv‡ii KvMR, wcGmwm m`‡m¨i ‡Kb G `vw¤¢KZv, Rvbyqvwi 27, 2006|
14. ‰`wbK msev`, wcGmwm m`‡m¨i ivR‰bwZK ZrciZv, ‰mq`cyi-wK‡kviMÄ GjvKvq †Zvjcvi, Rvbyqvwi 19, 2006|
15. ‰`wbK Ki‡Zvqv, QzwU‡Z G‡m MYms‡hvM K‡i †M‡jb wcGmwm m`m¨ cÖ‡dmi gvndzRyi ingvb, Ryb 5, 2006|
16. ‰`wbK gvbeRwgb, 20Zg wewmGm- G mvwU©wd‡KU e¨emv, †g 8, 2002|
17. ‰`wbK RbKÚ, wcGmwmi GK Pμ PvKwi †`qvi bv‡g jvL jvL UvKvi evwYR¨ Ki‡Q, `jxqKiY, cÖkoecÎ duvm Ggb wK fvBev
cix¶v †_‡KI A_© DcvR©b, A‡±vei, 17, 2006|
16
18. ‰`wbK RbKÚ, mvZvkZg wewmGm fyqv cÖkoecÎ wewμ!! UzcvBm KvgvB, gvP© 19, 2006|
19. ‰`wbK hyMvš—i, fyqv cÖkoecÎ ‡e‡P UvKv nvwZ‡q‡Q cÖZviK Pμ: AZ:ci wfboe ¸Re, †g 19, 2006|
20. ‰`wbK evsjvevRvi, Avev‡iv wewmGm cix¶vi cÖkoe duvm, wewfboe n‡j DËicÎ wewμ, b‡f¤^i 20, 2005|
21. ‰`wbK cÖ g Av‡jv, ivZfi wewμ n‡q‡Q wewmGm cix¶vi fyqv cÖkoecÎ, gvP© 19, 2006|
22. ‰`wbK w`bKvj, cÖkoecÎ duv‡mi ¸Re ¸ReB i‡q †Mj, gvP© 19, 2006|
23. ‰`wbK hyMvš—i, AveviI wewmGm cÖkoe duvm, b‡f¤^i 20, 2005|
24. ‰`wbK AvR‡Ki KvMR, AveviI cÖkoe duvm, b‡f¤^i 20, 2005|
25. ‰`wbK RbKÚ, †RvU miKv‡ii Avg‡j wcGmwmi cÖkoecÎ 7 evi duvm! wW‡m¤^i 25, 2006|
26. ‰`wbK RbKÚ, †RvU miKv‡ii Avg‡j 3 evi wewmG‡mi cÖkoecÎ duvm! wcGmwmi ¯^”QZv wb‡q cÖkoe †`Lv w`‡PQ,
20.11.2005|
27. ‰`wbK msev`, PZy©ev‡ii g‡Zv wewmGm cÖkoecÎ duv‡mi `vq miKvi‡KB wb‡Z n‡e, b‡f¤^i 20, 2005|
28. ‰`wbK †fv‡ii KvMR, Avev‡iv duvm, b‡f¤^i 20, 2005|
29. ‰`wbK BbwKjve, wewmGm cix¶vi cÖkoecÎ duv‡mi ¸Re, b‡f¤^i 20, 2005|
30. ‰`wbK B‡ËdvK, wewmG‡mi cÖkoecÎ duv‡mi Awf‡hvM!! wcGmwmi A¯^xKvi, b‡f¤^i 19, 2005|
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32.The Financial Express, Question leakage in BCS examinations, November 20, 2005.
33.The Independent, Questions of 27th BCS exam leaked out, November 19, 2006.
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2005.
35. The Daily Star, PSC to defend charges as protests continue, August 11, 2003.
36. ‰`wbK BbwKjve, 26Zg wewmGi (wk¶v) wb‡qvM, D\†KvP I ivRbxwZKi‡Yi Awf‡hvM: ïiy‡ZB nqivwb: c` †bB ZeyI
c`vqb, GwcÖj 2, 2006|
37.‰`wbK hyMvš—i, wewmGm K¨vWv‡i PvKwi cv‡PQb †dj Kiv cÖv_©xiv, GwcÖj 5, 2005|
38.‰`wbK msev`, wcGmwmi ivRbxwZKiY, m¤úv`Kxq, A‡±vei 1, 2006|
39.‰`wbK RbKÚ , wewmG‡m wb‡qvM wb‡q ZzNjwK KvÛ! wW‡m¤^i 28, 2005|
40.The Bangladesh Observer, Politicization at its worst, July 26, 2005.
41.The News Today, Scam at BCS Exams, November 20, 2005.
42.‰`wbK B‡ËdvK, wcGmwmi ivRbxwZKiY: `jxq †jvK wb‡qv‡M wbe©vPb KwgkbI weZ‡K© Rwo‡q c‡o‡Q, †m‡Þ¤^i 28, 2005|
43.‰`wbK msev`, wcGmwm m`‡m¨i wei“‡× ¸i“Zi Awf‡hvM, b‡f¤^i 17, 2006|
44.‰`wbK cÖg Av‡jv, wewmGm cix¶vq Awbqg Av‡iv †e‡o‡Q, cv‡ë †M‡Q aibI, wd‡i †`Lv `yb©xwZi ‡k¦ZcÎ, A‡±vei 27,
2005|
45.‰`wbK RbKÚ, wewmGm cix¶v cÖ‡koei gy‡L, b‡f¤^i 22, 2005|
46.The New Age, PSC’s reputation is on the line (on leakage of 27th BCS Preliminary Test),
November 19, 2005.
47.The Daily Star, Memo to PSC chairman for cancellation of a BCS exam, March 6, 2005.
48.The Daily Star, Politicisation of civil service reason for corruption, Sep. 2, 2003.
49. ‰`wbK Avgv‡`i mgq, weZwK©Z‡`i W¨vw¤ús Kiv n‡q‡Q wcGmwm‡Z, Rvbyqvwi, 24, 2006.
50. ‰`wbK mgKvj, wcGmwm‡Z †ec‡ivqv `yb©xwZ: jvL jvL UvKv Nyl wb‡q wewmGm K¨vWvi wb‡qvM †`Iqv n‡”Q, Rvbyqvwi, 27,
2007|
51.‰`wbK gvbeRwgb, wcGmwm cÖkoecÎ duvm K‡i‡Q ZvB- †eZb fvZv evov‡bvi we‡j we‡ivax `‡ji ‡bvU Ae wW‡m›U, miKvix `‡ji Ggwc‡`i
IqvKAvDU (msm`xq KwgwUi ‰eVK), Rvbyqvwi 31, 2006|
52.The New Nation, JS body for placing PSC bill at JS, January 31, 2006.
53.The Financial Express, Opposition MPs charge PSC as being partisan, oppose raising salary of
Chairman and Members, January 31, 2006.
54.The Daily Star, AL MPs oppose pay increase of PSC members, January 31, 2006.http://www.a-z-az.blogspot.com

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